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SUPERQUIZZ!! All the best quizz from Su'nday, Moa'nday & Yui'sday! PART 3: Lyrics & Songs knowledge!

2020.09.12 10:52 JawaScrapper SUPERQUIZZ!! All the best quizz from Su'nday, Moa'nday & Yui'sday! PART 3: Lyrics & Songs knowledge!

Hi, kitsune! Here are a selection of the best quizzes we had in the special member threads! This thread will be permanently linked in the special member threads, so it will be easy to come back to it. Here the links are permanent.
 
Good luck and have fun!
 
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 1
About the lyrics of "Catch me if you can", can you complete the lyrics here?
"Ooi ! Moo ii kai ? Moo ii kaai !?"
here is the song with the good answer, and here is the Du-metal blog page about the song (also with the good answer by the way).
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 2
In one song we have these lyrics:
kokoro no oku no heya ni hitori. ("In a room deep inside my heart, I stayed alone.")
Do you know from which song this lyrics are?
here is the translation on the Du-metal blog with the good answer, and the song itself official version ; Sonisphere 2014.
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 3
"Break"
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 4
"Demone chotto weight"
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 5
"MONEY! MONEY! MONEY! MONEY!"
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 6
"M"
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 7
"We aaaaaare..."
 
"We are..."
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 8
"Oh Baby"
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 9
between light and darkness, I stayed alone
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 10
" yon yon "
 
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 11
Kami sama
 
The answer above gives you the name of a song. The song is about girls trying to get money and presents from their dad. There are several tactics used by the girls to get what they want from their poor dad. Amongst the following tactics, which one is NOT in the song.
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 12
Here are some lyrics in Japanese and their translation in English...
 
So... Can you match the original lyrics with its english translation? Of course for those who speak Japanese it will be easy...
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 13
Fill the gap
In the depth of our heart,
The hot ...... is burning.
It is our resistance
 
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 14
can you guess from which song are these lyrics? Note: the lyrics inside the [] are the chorus.
 
Ich konnte nicht mehr träumen
Zwischen Licht und Dunkelheit blieb ich allein.
Wer verletzt wurde war nicht nur ich,
sondern auch diejenigen, die mich beobachteten. Ihr seid es gewesen.
Selbstvertrauen, [Habe es!]
Ich konnte es nicht haben . [Nicht geschlagen zu werden!]
Ich hielt mich Versteckt
[Ich mag nicht gefunden werden !]
bis gestern. [Gestern ist vorbei!]
Aber Lebewohl zu meinem gestrigen ich.
[Bye- bye!]
 
So... which song it is? You can do it!
 
Ok... for those who speak German it was really easy, right? Next one: can you guess from which song are these lyrics?
 
Je ne peux même pas rêver
Je reste seule entre lumière et obscurité
Je n'ai pas été la seule à être blessée
Mais toi aussi, qui a pris soin de moi
La confiance (aie la) je ne l'ai pas (ne te fais pas battre)
Je continue de me cacher (je n'aime pas être trouvé) jusqu'hier (hier)
 
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 15
we'll see if you can recognize a Babymetal lyric from another bands' lyrics!
Ok first one: Omae no sono konjoo tataki-naosu zo. [I will beat your ill-nature into shape]
 
Second one:
Omae wa mou shindeiru. ["You are already dying"]
 
Third one: mayoikondemo mata saki e tozasenai omoi wo [Even if you get lost, just go ahead from the feeling that can't be closed ]
 
Last one: umoreta toki tomado omae wa akumu wo samayo, chi no kifuruwasu noise de omae no kokoro kowashite yaru [You're lost in buried time, you're wandering around in nightmares, Your heart will break within the quaking noise ]
 
 
QUESTION (Lyrics) 16
From which song are these lyrics?
"Watatata taata"
 
"Cutie Style!"
 
"Maada da yo"
 
"Hitasura seiya soiya tatakau-nda"
 
"Kao de waratte kokoro de naite "
 
Dying the eastern sky true red,
the light of signal fire
tells the end of the darkness of solitude.
It's a new guidepost.
 
 
The waning moon has lit up
the insanity rampant in the shade.
The laughter resounds around.
It bares its fangs and its eyes gleam.
I can't escape from it.
 
 
In the song "Catch me if you can", what is the move they are doing on the lyrics "guru guru kakurenbo"
 
 
 
 
SONG KNOWLEDGE
 
 
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 1)
From which song these lyrics are from?
Red tears overflow
and dye the night sky
 
 
The answer above gives you a song name. This song has been released in June 2013, and was coupled with an another song in the regular edtion. Which one?
 
During the Legend 1997 show, a special version was played. This version included some usual features. From the following possibilities which one was NOT part of this live version?
here is the Du-metal blog page dedicated to the song in the quiz with the good answer and more. Finally, here is the song in its Legend 1997 shape and the standard version!
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 2)
Let's speak about Gimme choco! You all have seen the official video on YouTube (more than 115 000 000 views in April 2020!). Directed by Ryosuke Machida, the music video was filmed during the first live performance of the song. Do you know which live performance it is?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 3)
"Doki Doki Morning" was originally released in April 2011 on a Sakura Gakuin album. Do you know the name of this SG album?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 4)
Let's speak a little bit of Road of Resistance.
 
When this tune was performed for the first time on 2014 November the 8th (in London), many people thought it was written by DragonForce (a British power metal band) because it resembled DragonForce's tunes too much. The fact, however, is that Sam TOTMAN & Herman LI, the guitarists of DragonForce, took part in the studio recording of this tune.
These infos are a shameful copy/paste from Du-metal Blogspot
 
Originally the song was meant to have a different name. Do you know which one?
here is a link to the Du-metal's translation of Road of Resistance, featuring the good answer.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 5)
Let's speak a little bit about Doki Doki Morning, would you? Formerly "Do・Ki・Do・Ki ☆ Morning"), the song was released in Japan as an independent DVD single on October 22, 2011, serving as the first single off the debut album Babymetal.
According to Su-metal, the video director, Shimon Tanaka, wanted something particular for the video. Do you know which one?
here is the Suzuka diary with the good answer, and also let's have the song itself and the Du-metal blog page about the song!
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 6)
About Ijime, Dame, Zettai :
How many version(s) of the single?
 
Somehow a famous woman, French historical figure from the Middle-Ages, is (loosely) associated with the song. Do you know who?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 7)
"Headbangeeeeerrrrr!!!!!"
This song's music has been written and arranged by a member of another Japanese band than Babymetal. Do you know which band?
here is the song.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 8)
You all know the song "Awadama Fever" right? However, did you know that this song has had a temporarily name? Do you know this name?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 9)
Let's speak a little bit about Uki Uki Midnight, would you?
"Uki Uki ★ Midnight" has been described by Barks as a sequel to the song "Doki Doki ☆ Morning". Arranged by Yuyoyuppe, the song contains elements of metalcore and dubstep, along with segments of pop melodies and death growls. Notably, the bridge contains elements of a famous and old lullaby...
Do you know which Lullaby it is?
 
here is the song and the Du-metal blog page dedicated to the song translation.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 10)
You surely know that Moa & Yui wrote the "Song 4" under the label of Black Babymetal. Do you know in what circumstance it happened?
 
There is a little anecdote linked to this event. Which one?
 
In the lyrics, the number 4 is associated with several things. Amongst the following answers, which ones are NOT associated with this number? You have to find 4 good answers!
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 11)
Let's speak a little bit of the song karate, will you?
In an article published in Rolling Stone (april 27, 2016), we are told that Babymetal watched some videos to get inspiration about the practice of Karate. According to the description given by the girls, they likely have watched one of this little girl's video on You Tube, However, there is one other source of inspiration about Karate, this time a movie. Do you know which one?
here is the article on Rolling Stone with the good answer.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 12)
Let's talk about the song Megitsune - or as we sometimes see "MegiSTune", like in the official Babymetal YT channel (check the description section, the first line of the big text, I think this mistake has been copy/pasted on ALL the videos from the channel haha).
 
Megitsune has been released as a single in?
 
In the following answers, which one is FALSE?
 
The additional versions of this single have a different one syllabic name for each, but if you put all this names together it forms a Japanese word. Do you know which one?
 
here is the wikipedia page about the song Megitsune with the good answer, and the song itelf.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 13)
 
What is the longest Babymetal song?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 14)
 
If I say "Sentimetal Night", you think of...
 
there is a different version of this song, included in the album of Sakura Gakuin and was performed in the graduation ceremony of Sakura Gakuin. This version is called the "Vega mix version". Do you know what is different in this version?
here is the songso adorable! and the dedicated translation on the Du-metal Blog-spot with the good answer and more knowledges about the song.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 15)
Kirai daaaaaa" ("I dislike")
 
The song given by the first question has an intro, which is a quotation. Do you know where it comes from?
 
Ok and do you know what exact quotation it is?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 16)
"Headbanger":
The single was released in two versions: a standard edition, available via CD and digital download, and a physical limited "Head" edition, which contains the CD as well as a "neck corset" (actually a cervical collar) for headbanging training (safety first!). However, do you know that both editions of the single actually feature TWO songs: "headbanger" -"face A"- and one another -"face B". Do you know what is this other song?
 
In short the lyrics evokes a story about a 15 years old concert-goer girl. Normally, in japanese "15" translates with "jûgo" (jû=10 ; go=5) but here we have "一五” ichigo, literally "one-five"... Why? Why did the author changed the usual way to say "15". What is the reference here?
 
During the live performances Legend "D" Su-metal Seitansai at Akasaka Blitz on December 20, 2012, and Legend "1997" Su-metal Seitansai at Makuhari Messe on December 21, 2012, a remix titled "Night of 15 mix." was performed, containing more elements of electronic music. The former took place on Suzuka Nakamoto's actual fifteenth birthday, while the latter was the opening song for the concert. Afterwards this remix has been renamed: do you know how?
 
here is the Du-metal page dedicated to "headbanger" with the good answer.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 17)
 
Akatsuki.
Ok, first question, a simple one: What does "Akatsuki" means?
 
"Akatsuki" is linked to a X-Japan song. Do you know which one?
 
There is in an unusual version of the song, do you remember? One of this difference was about lines that are skipped in the lyrics... Actually even some verses were skipped. So... amongst the following verses, which one WAS skipped in the special version?
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 18)
 
The song of the 4 has a special version. This version was released in the «Apocalypse edtion» of the first album. Do you know the name of this special version?
 
In this version, a part of the lyrics is different. However, because of a close similarity in the text, the changed lyrics link the song to another special version of a Babymetal song. Do you know which song?
here is the Du-metal blog page dedicated to the song in the quiz with the good answers and the song in its special version.
 
 
QUESTION (Song knowledge 19)
 
Can you guess from which song are these lyrics?
 
don't worry, don't worry
Now we're going to reborn
Set me free
 
 
The answer above gives you a song. This song is STRONGLY connected to another Babymetal song. Do you know which one?
 
And finally, the nasty question: in the lyrics you have the line: "We are The Destinies", as well as the title includes "The Destinies" and also let's add the fact that the girls are three. So, because of all of that, "Destinies" is likely to be a reference to...
here is the Du-metal blog page dedicated to the song with the good answer ; and the song itself
 
 
This one was long and tough! Congratulations you made it to the end! So here are some goodies for you!! Album from 2010-2014 & Album from 2016
submitted by JawaScrapper to BABYMETAL [link] [comments]


2020.08.23 17:24 1trance_org Trance JULY 2020 Releases Megapack

Trance 2020 JULY Megapack (1280 releases over 72 GB):

Download: https://1trance.org/node/14218/trance-2020-07-july-megapack

29_Palms-Touch_the_Sky_(Incl._Remixes)-(PRFCT167)-WEB-2020-AOV 2asONE-Giri_(Original_Extended)-(94TR35)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO 2Sher-We_Can_Be-(PHAT083)-WEB-2020-AFO 3RVIN-Confused-(ASR249)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT 40THAVHA-Amor_Roma-(SDR364)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT 4_Seas-Circles-(LEV126)-WEB-2020-AFO 4_Strings_and_Sue_McLaren-Never_Ever_After-(RNMR029A)-WEB-2020-AFO 4_Strings_and_Susanne_Teutenberg-I_Feel_You_(Nord_Horizon_Remix)-(RNMR194)-WEB-2020-AFO 4motion_Vs._Opix_And_Nomos-Our_Friend_Harry-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON 79Rpm-No_Way_Back-(NSM339)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN 7Roses_and_Camille_-_Trying_Not_To_Cry_(Remixes)-(YL070)-WEB-2020-FMC 7ROSES_and_Natune-Keep_Moving_On-(YR1311)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO 7Roses_and_Rebecca_Louise_Burch--This_Heart-(YR1298)-WEB-2020-OMA 8Th_Sin-Beside_You-(CAT403151)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN A_and_E_Project-Birth_Of_Galaxy-(ESR445)-WEB-2020-AFO Abide-Forget_Me_EP-(SDR359)-WEB-2020-AFO Abide-Forget_Me_EP-(SDR359)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Abide_and_U-Mount-All_Alone-(NHW035)-WEB-2020-AFO Above_and_Beyond-Jam-WEB-2020-AFO Abstract_Vision_ft_Hydro_Poison-Orbiter-(VANXT22)-WEB-2020-AFO Accuface-The_Ride_(Remastered)-(MPR067)-WEB-2020-AFO Ace_Ventura-Deep_Breath-(IBOGADIGITAL631)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Acidbots-Another_Revelation-(PAO1DW297)-WEB-2020-KLIN Activa-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Activa_ft._Julie_Harrington_-_Away_From_This_(Tim_Bourne_Remix)-WEB-2020-QMI Acues-Dont_Look_Behind-(DER043)-WEB-2020-AFO Adam_Dixon-Untitled_Society-(ST009)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Adam_Sobiech-Roses_In_The_Sunrise-(EUPH319)-WEB-2020-AFO Adrenalin_Drum_Vs._California_Sunshine-Forest_Of_Dreams-WEB-2020-FALCON Aeden-Replica_(Blashear_Remix)-(UA096)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aeolu5-Loarun-(AEP404)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aesis_Alien-Twisted_Reality-WEB-2020-NDE Ahmed_Helmy-The_Unchained-(SND227A)-WEB-2020-AFO Ahmed_Romel-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Aimoon_ft_Alaera-Summer_Vibe-(VOICE088)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aioaska-Yond_The_Virus-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Airheadz-In_The_Air-(NEW350A)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Airheadz-Stanley_(Here_I_Am)_(Remixes)-(NEW351A)-WEB-2020-AFO AJ_Gibson-Another_Journey-(NUCRD104)-WEB-2020-AFO Akakor-Strange_Light-(4AR158)-WEB-2020-KLIN Al3ss_-_Music_is_My_Life_(Extended_Version)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Aladiah-Stereo_Culture-(TSR0132)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alan_Morris-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Alan_Morris-United-(FSOE466A)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alan_Sharkey-Search_and_Find_(Extended_Mix)-(SCR354)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Alan_Sharkey-Search_and_Find_(Extended_Mix)-(SCR354)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aled_Mann-Cause_and_Effect-(DISCDIG06B)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aleksey_Litunov-Galaxy_Light_(Original_Mix)-(TF130)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Aleksey_Taranov-Activation-(4061798662357)-WEB-2020-KLIN Alevaz-Evolution-(PHZ295)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alex_Al_Onions-Our_Times-(YAWR252)-WEB-2020-KLIN Alex_Burn-Hypervoid-(MCS94)-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_Di_Stefano-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Alex_Djohn_and_Mike_Sang-Lullaby-(DEF225)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_Drane-Breathe-(RDXM111)-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_Leavon-Field_Of_Dreams-(PRSPCTV012)-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_M.O.R.P.H.-Starfleet_Commander-(VAN2405)-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_Mazel-In_Your_Eyes-(BT269)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alex_Mazel-Serenity-(RDXRED164)-WEB-2020-AFO Alex_Sonata_and_TheRio-Nebula-(ASOT612)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alex_Soun_-_Angel_(Extended_Mix)-(ATR94)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-JUSTiFY Alex_V_Ice-Infinity-(YAWR249)-WEB-2020-KLIN Alex_Van_Sanders-Feel_Alive-(YL067)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alex_Wright-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Alex_Wright_and_DANIEL_KANDI-Gem_State-(ALWAYSA342)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alexander_Geon-Echoes_Of_The_Past-(YL066)-WEB-2020-KLIN Alexander_Komarov-Arabian_Adventure-(CMS003)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alexander_Popov_and_Kitone-Elements-(ARCV162)-WEB-2020-AFO Alexei_Maslov_-_Interstellar-(NSM342)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC AlexMo_ft_HatStandy-Tinted_Specs-(MR022)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO AlexMo_ft_HatStandy-Tinted_Specs-(MR022)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT AlexRusShev-Regenerate-(MSBKR183)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT AlexRusShev-Winter_Glow-(NIX168)-WEB-2020-AFO AlexZideyn_and_Margo_Lane--I_Want_To_Be_With_You-(NS904)-WEB-2020-OMA Alien_Dj-Feel_The_Harmony-(AR063)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alien_Life_Form-Down_To_Earth-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Alien_Visitors-We_Will_Meet_Again-(GEOSP090)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Alienatic-Oumuamua-WEB-2020-FALCON Allan_Berndtz_and_Sonic_Journey-Fierce-(TGR040)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Allan_Mcluhan-Courage-(PMK007)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Allen_Watts_and_Steve_Dekay-The_Phuture-(WAO138295)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Allen_Watts_and_Steve_Dekay-The_Phuture-(WAO138295)-WEB-2020-AFO Allen_Watts_and_Steve_Dekay_-_The_Phuture-SINGLE-WEB-2020-QMI Allen_Watts_and_Steve_Dekay_-_The_Phuture_(Extended_Mix)-(WAO138295)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Alpha025-Hystoria-(UPLY098)-WEB-2020-KLIN Alpha025-Space_Crafter-(IPR193)-WEB-2020-AFO ALPHA_9-Tell_Me-(ANJ634BD)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alternate_High-Hyperion-(TAR138120)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Alternate_High-Hyperion-(TAR138120)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Alternate_High-My_Fate_Within-(BTSR322)-WEB-2020-AFO Alyx-The_Alternative_World-(DER042)-WEB-2020-AFO Amir_Rad-Ghazal-(RDXM112)-WEB-2020-AFO Amir_Reza-Faraway-(RDX398)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Amol_Tiwari-Unlock_The_Lockdown-(637285431979323253)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Amos_and_Riot_Night_and_Robbie_Graham-Finish_Line-(FSOE463A)-WEB-2020-AFO Amplify-Automata-(SPIT213)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN An_Sinewave-Soul_Voyage-(SOL125)-WEB-2020-AFO Andrew_Bennett_and_Sir_Adrian-Run_Till_U_Shine-(ADRAZ079)-WEB-2020-AFO Andrew_Ddm-12_Celsius-(DDM094)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Andrew_Modens_-_Progressive_Fantasy-(BSR581)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Andrew_Rayel-Dark_Warrior_(Chris_Schweizer_Remix)-(IHM105)-READNFO-WEB-2020-AFO Andrew_Rayel_and_Robbie_Seed_ft_That_Girl-Stars_Collide_(Remixes)-(ARMD1526R1)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Andrew_Starkoff-Darena-(YV083)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Andy_Duguid_and_Jaren-My_Thunder-(MM13480)-WEB-2020-AFO Andy_Elliass-For_One_Smile-(MPS107)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Andy_Elliass-For_One_Smile_(Incl_Edit)-(MPS107)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Andy_Jornee-Wide_Awake-(U70720)-WEB-2020-AFO Andy_Jornee-Writing_On_The_Wall-(BTSR328)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Andy_Jornee-You_and_I-(WATR045)-WEB-2020-AFO Andy_Moor_and_Somna_ft_Monika_Santucci-Free_Fall_(Millennials_On_Full_Force_Remix)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Antinomy-Eternal-(IBOGADIGITAL634)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Anton_Kotov-Light_In_The_Darkness-(SCR358S)-WEB-2020-AFO Anton_Trian-Hydrae_EP-(ASR248)-WEB-2020-AFO Antone-Massive-(TAR138119)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Aran_Project-Strakals-(PAO1DW296)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Arctic_Moon_ft_Jessica_Lawrence-Like_The_Sun-(FSOE464A)-WEB-2020-AFO Arentis_and_Jovi_Frost-Amrun-(VRS099)-WEB-2020-AFO Areo-Celestial-(GRVV0967)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN AREO-Tetra-(PLST0003)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Arjans_and_OneBeat-Reverie-(BASE095)-WEB-2020-AFO Armin_Van_Buuren-Lost_Tapes-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Armin_Van_Buuren_And_AVIRA_Ft._Be_No_Rain_-_Hollow_(Extended_Mix)-(ARMD1546)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Aron_Scott-Rose-(GLO165)-WEB-2020-AOV Arsika-Shine-(TCF41)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Artento_Divini-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Arthesia_vs_DalNulla-Sonar-(SCR359S)-WEB-2020-AFO Artifex-Conscious_Dreams-(X7M226)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Ascent-Now_I_Can_See-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Ash_K_and_Junior-Nour-(SBLR103)-WEB-2020-AFO Ash_Kunelius_-_Transcend_Reality-(YV081)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC Ashley_Gibson_-_Gods_Of_The_Copybook_Headings-(NS901)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Ashley_Gibson_-_Ray_Of_Light-(VRC025)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Asteroid-Infrared-(MCV95)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Asteroid-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Astro-D_And_Miranda-Psychic_Powers-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Astro_Nordik-Space_Rodeo-(195081794815)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Atomo_Vs._Psywhispering-Psychedelic_Delight-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Atragun_vs_Mark_Wild_and_Eldream-Devotion-(SUBMISSION198)-WEB-2020-AFO Atragun_vs_Mark_Wild_and_Eldream-Devotion-(SUBMISSION198)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Atzael_Trash-Retro_Wave-(RSR019)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN August_Vila-The_Answer-(UA094)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Aurosonic_and_Kate_Louise_Smith-I_Wouldve_Stayed-(AUSOM017)-WEB-2020-AFO Avaastavik-Sedated-(473257)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN AVAO_ft_Mike_Schmid-Over_and_Over-(RA113)-WEB-2020-AFO Avd_-_Brave_Warrior-(IR109)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Awii-After_Effects-(RR034)-WEB-2020-AFO Awii-Molly_Polly-(BSR004)-WEB-2020-AFO Axel_Core-Alcoholic-(SAM333)-WEB-2020-KLIN AxelPolo_and_Danilo_Marinucci-Better_Days-(RUR095)-WEB-2020-AFO AXijaro_and_Pitch-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT AXMO_-_The_Mind-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC B.E.A.R_and_Kevin_Shiah-Ellicit_EP_Vol_2-(EL018)-WEB-2020-AFO Babak_Haleky-Elev8-(4061798671977)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Barb_Icon-Alex_End-(EFF220)-WEB-2020-KLIN Bardalimov-Enthusiasm__Alone-(AE406)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Base_Experience-Deep_Blue-(LS0087)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Base_Trap-Vertigo-(ART108)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Bassam_Jalid_and_Forest_Weed-Cyber_Lady-(BZM160)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Bassmite-No1-(TIME063)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Beat_Service_and_Sarah_Russell-Would_You-(RNMR033A)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Bellatrix-Inside_You-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Ben_Gold-Starstruck-(ASOT605)-WEB-2020-AFO Ben_Stone-Aragon-(INTER175)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Berg-Warzone-(BTRDR770)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Betelgeuze--We_Can_Do-(BSR580)-WEB-2020-OMA Bidwell-Pieces-(OHMM078)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Big_Booler-Empty_Out-(EFF184)-WEB-2020-KLIN Bill_McGruddy_ft_WAI-Iris-WEB-2020-AFO Billy_Gillies-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Binary_Finary-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT BIONIQUE-Supernova-(ECT168)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO BiXX_and_Last_Soldier-Unity-(NK050)-WEB-2020-AFO Black_Fly-Metatron-(MR025)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Blowminder-Violet-(10174580)-WEB-2020-KLIN Blowminder_-_Anabel-(4061707319433)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Blue5even_and_Farhad_Zohdabady-Silhouette-(EA079)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Blue_Serigala-The_Last_Call-(BTSR324)-WEB-2020-AFO Blue_Serigala-The_Last_Call-(BTSR324)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Blufeld-Do_We_Really_Know-(VAS104)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Blufeld-Do_We_Really_Know-(VAS104)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Bodo_Kaiser_and_Ron_Van_Den_Beuken_ft_Kim_Kiona-Walk_On_My_Own-(ENTRM185)-WEB-2020-AFO Brad_Thatcher-Be_The_One-(IDR72)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-wAx Bruno_Oloviani_-_Bliss-(GGR001)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Bryan_Kearney-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Bryn_Liedl-Integration-(EUPH321)-WEB-2020-AFO BT_ft_Emma_Hewitt-No_Warning_Lights_(Remixes)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Buzzila-Methodical-(BR095)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN C-Systems_and_Hanna_Finsen-Time-(RNMR193)-WEB-2020-AFO C_A_G_E-Stratosphera-(SONE017)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Cafdaly_-_Memory-(4061707411601)-WEB-2020-ZzZz California_Sunshine-Forest_Of_Dreams-(GOAEP380)-WEB-2020-KLIN Cambium-Illusion-WEB-2020-FALCON Cameron_Mo_ft_Horf-Open_The_Cage-(FSOE465A)-WEB-2020-AFO Capital_Monkey-Make_A_Move-(ARC491)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Capslock-Wiggle_Wine-(BTPRT263093)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Chacruna-Awakening_Intuition-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Chapperz_-_The_Journey-(5059580093525)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Checho_Suarez_-_Spectra-(YV069)-WEB-2020-FMC Chicane-No_Ordinary_Morning_(Remixed)-(MDA030)-WEB-2020-AFO Chicane-No_Ordinary_Morning_(Remixed)-WEB-2020-AFO Chicane-No_Ordinary_Morning_Remixed-(MDA030)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Chris_Burke-Fly_Away-(AWD472374)-WEB-2020-KLIN Chris_Connolly-Genocide-(DSR039)-WEB-2020-AFO Chris_Connolly-Stimulation-(AE407)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Chris_Deme-Let_The_Sun_Shine_Through-(NRG030)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Chris_F_-_Mess_You_Up-(UTHHT022)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Chris_Schweizer-Dont_Be_Scared-(WAO138291)-WEB-2020-AFO Christian_C_and_Santiago_Ibanez-Hope_(Josh_Pvoi_Remix)-(TMM117)-WEB-2020-AFO Christina_Novelli-Im_Ok-(BH10090)-REPACK-WEB-2020-AFO Christopher_Urrea-Paradise-(637293452729985420)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Chukiess_x_Whackboi_ft_Amin_Salmee-Alive-(IHM106)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Ciaran_Mcauley-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Ciro_Visone_and_Semper_T.-Lost_Thoughts-(NIX169)-WEB-2020-AFO CJ_Antz_-_An_Evening_In_The_Subway_2020-(ELGD041)-WEB-2020-ZzZz CJ_Art-Interstellar_Travel-(INB1DIGI023)-WEB-2020-AFO CJ_Mover_-_Drama-(GERT0519)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Clark-Rainfall-(ART110)-WEB-2020-KLIN Claus_Backslash-Absolute_Delusion-(FLASHTR160)-WEB-2020-AFO Claus_Backslash-Legendary_Places-(CLHR406)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Cloud7-Wonderland-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Cm2-Together_We_Are_Stronger-(AE405)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Co.Fi-Get_On_Up-(ESR494)-WEB-2020-AFO Coke_Montilla-Scape_Room-(10175871)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Cold_Blue-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Cold_Blue-Recovery_(John_OCallaghan)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Cold_Blue-Recovery_(John_OCallaghan_Remix)-(SUBC204)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Colorblind-On_The_Other_Side-(BT267)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Contineum_Vs._Sabretooth-Megaphragma-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Controversial_-_Horizon_EP-(INTRSTLLR002)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Cor_Fijneman-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Coredata-Wander-(JOOF319)-WEB-2020-AFO Corrosive_System-D.M.T.-WEB-2020-FALCON Corti_Orga_and_and_Sarah_De_Warren-Better_One_(Roman_Messer_Remix)-(IHM107)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Corti_Organ_and_Sarah_de_Warren_-_Better_One_(Incl._Roman_Messer_Remix)-(IHM107)-WEB-2020-QMI Cosmic_Flow_And_SOME1-Storyteller-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Costa_and_Hysteria-Dagger-(RNMR192)-WEB-2020-AFO Costa_Pantazis-Binary_Code-(MA019)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Costa_Pantazis-Untamed_Wilds-(JMJR082)-WEB-2020-AFO Costa_Pantazis_-_Binary_Code_(Incl_Ikorus_Remix)-(MA019)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Craig_Connelly-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Craig_Connelly_ft._Cammie_Robinson_-_Run_Away_(Club_Mixes)-(BH10260)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Craig_Connelly_ft_Cammie_Robinson-Run_Away_(feat._Cammie_Robinson)-(BH10260)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Craig_Connelly_ft_Karina_Ramage-Life_Half_Lived-(SUBC206)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Craig_Forsyth-Salamancas_Bell-(DISDAR230)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO CreationForce-Luz_Para_Este_Mundo-WEB-2020-NDE Crimson_Controllers-Unreliable-(EFF217)-WEB-2020-KLIN CRYDITS-After_Night_(Remixes)-(FORCE056)-WEB-2020-AFO Cybercraft--Maelstroem-(UGR010)-WEB-2020-OMA D-Nation-Emotions-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON D72-Acid_Drop_(OBM_Notion_Dark_Notion_Remix)-(DMAXDR069)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-wAx D72-Interstellar-(INFRAR027)-WEB-2020-AFO D72-Orbit-(CLM138)-WEB-2020-KLIN D72_ft_Dan_Iwan-Lilly_2k20-(TAR138122)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT D72_pres_Dan_Iwan-Lilly_2k20-(TAR138122)-WEB-2020-AFO D__Russo-Kingpin-(MB085)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Dafuqex-Zenith-(SRS11506)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Dall_Eight-Full_Sets-(EFF194)-WEB-2020-KLIN Dalmoori_and_Binary_Ensemble-Liquid_Dreams-WEB-2020-AOV Dan_Delaforce-Always_Alive-(SUBMISSION199)-WEB-2020-AFO Dan_Schneider-Arclight-(SCR351)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Dan_Schneider-Arclight-(SCR351)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dan_Schneider-Deucalion-(KSX416)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Dan_Schneider-Deucalion-(KSX416)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dan_Stone-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Dan_Stone-Vice_Versa-(FSOEF056A)-WEB-2020-AFO Dan_Thompson-Supervention-(MCV94)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Daneel_Dokhov_ft_Dariavush-Wave_in_Fire-(10175214)-WEB-2020-AFO Daniel_Dominguez-Escaping_From_Reality-(DDM100)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Daniel_Lesden-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Daniel_Ortgiess_and_Yan_Weinstock-Maasai-(FLASHBL014)-WEB-2020-AFO Daniel_Patrick_Roy-New_Dawn-(PVM070)-WEB-2020-AFO Daniel_Skyver-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Daniel_Wanrooy_ft_Lachi-Years-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Daniel_Wanrooy_ft_Lachi-Zeta-WEB-2020-AFO Danilux-The_Light-(AR060)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Danny_Eaton-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Danny_Fervent_-_Sonnenlicht_(Bravenus_Remixes)-(MMRD1187)-WEB-2020-MARiBOR Danny_Gee-Ntp-(ES108)-WEB-2020-KLIN Danny_Oliveira-Drop_It_Your_Love-(DISDAR10B)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Darkness_Falls-Absent_Mind-(CLHR408)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Darren_Hall-What_To_Do-(RR035)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO DARVO-No_Looking_Back-(PHAT082)-WEB-2020-AFO Dave_Neven_and_Dan_Thompson-Lost_In_Amsterdam-(FLASHTR163)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dave_Steward-Hooked_and_Juiced-(NC0081)-WEB-2020-AFO Dave_Steward-Hooked_and_Juiced_(Phil_Reynolds_Remix)-(NC0113)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Dave_Steward-Inception_(The_Album)_Extended-(NC0041)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dave_Steward-Inception_(The_Album)_Radio_Edits-(NC0041R)-WEB-2020-AFO Dave_Steward-Manipulated_Waters_(Original_Mix)-(NC0123)-WEB-2020-AFO Dave_Steward_-_Charged_EP2-(NC0122)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Claptrap-(NC0051)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_End_Of_Line-(NC0044)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Enslaved_(Miroslav_Vrlik_Remix)-(NC0041RM)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Fully_Fitted-(NC0106)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Inception_(The_Album)-WEB-2020-QMI Dave_Steward_-_Junkets_Mist-(NC0054)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Pollex-(NC0030)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Satans_Wardrobe-(NC0093)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_Skyscraper_Affect-(NC0077)-WEB-2020-FMC Dave_Steward_-_The_Verge_(Richard_Tanselli_Remix)-(NC0049)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC Davey_Asprey-The_Road_So_Far-(CLHR407)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT David_Forbes-Timewarp-(ARD117)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO David_Rust-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT David_Surok-Cape_Hatteras__Desire-(BTSR321)-WEB-2020-AFO Daxson-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Deep_Vibration-Consciousness-WEB-2020-FALCON Deepsky-Cosmic_Dancer_(Orkidea_Pure_Progressive_Remix)-(PTP115)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Deepsky-Cosmic_Dancer_(Orkidea_Pure_Progressive_Remix)_(Incl_Edit)-(PTP115)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Delatte-Come_Back-(VWH022)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Denis_Efremov-Voice_of_the_Heart-(ESK095)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Denis_Krivoshein-Eagles_Path-(DMAX634)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Denis_Sender-Metropolis-(PROG071)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Denis_Sender-Metropolis-(PROG071A)-WEB-2020-AFO Derek_Palmer_and_Hidden_Tigress-Desolation-(EGMSIN287)-WEB-2020-AFO Deykin-Anthropy-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Digital_Tribe-Difficult_Choices-(UTPDIG02)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN DIM3NSION_ft_Lydia_Schrough-Always_Loved_You-(FLASH211)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dimitri_Serrano-Ceneii-(SSCD2175)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Discordia-Osorezan-(TA221)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dissociactive-Electric_Fields-WEB-2020-FALCON Distortion_Riders_and_Kev_Wild-Treacherous-(EGMSIN289)-WEB-2020-AFO District5-Frosted_Glass-(RDX138153)-WEB-2020-AFO Dito-Shadows_(Talla_2XLC_2K20_Remix)-(TCR001)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT DJ_Amadeus_-_Smash-(WAO138298)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Dj_Darroo-Where_Are_We_Going-(IT041)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN DJ_Fait-Tell_Me_Anything-(AQL369)-WEB-2020-AOV DJ_GIO.PO-Electronic_Atlas-(MYC911)-WEB-2020-AFO DJ_H.I.R.O_(Hiro_Furuse)_-_Transcend-(5059435618538)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz DJ_Jeffrey_and_De-Leit-Yara_(Jon_Doe_and_Friend_Remix)-(COHCL001R)-WEB-2020-AFO Dj_Rayne-Skyler-(EHE099)-WEB-2020-KLIN Dj_Rayne-Trancer-(EHE081)-WEB-2020-KLIN Dj_Rob-Seekers-(DJROB06062020)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Dj_Rob-Shall_Be-(DJROB05122020)-WEB-2020-KLIN DJ_Sakin_and_Friends-Rising_Tide-(JMJR083)-WEB-2020-AFO DJ_SO4-I_Belong_Here-(DEVA72)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO DJ_Spaceman-Pegasus_(Remixes)-(TF032R)-WEB-2020-AFO Dj_Sunkeeperz-Marakara-(29TRANCE0006)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN DJ_T.H.-Leonie_(Chillout_Mix)-(AVACH013)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO DJ_Tomsten_-_Roadwarrior-(47798)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz DJ_Tomsten_-_Worldalpha-(47799)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz DJ_Vagabond_-_No_Future-(3616405256200)-WEB-2020-ZzZz DJT-Feel_Again-(TF042)-WEB-2020-AFO Djt-Rainy_Day-(10175137)-WEB-2020-KLIN Dmitriy_Chelnokov-The_Road-(R2586)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Dmitry_Bereza-Fractures-(TRNCA371)-WEB-2020-KLIN Doccarai-Tuned-(PH006)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Dominant_Space-Acid_Rave-(OT061)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Dory_Badawi_ft_Roxanne_Emery-Weapon_Of_Choice-(RDX378)-WEB-2020-wAx Double_Motion-Way_into_the_Future-(10173260)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Doxa-Stimulation_Of_Senses-WEB-2020-FALCON Drane_Forty_-_Small_Logs-(EFF226)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Dream_Dance_Alliance_-_Under_The_Moonlight-WEB-2020-QMI Dreamstate-From_Breath_To_Air-(AIGDIGI032)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Drival-By_Your_Side-(ENTRMR090)-WEB-2020-AFO Dropmind_And_Dktronic-Lsd_Therapy-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON DRYM-Icarus-(NK049)-WEB-2020-AFO DRYM-Icarus-(NK049)-WEB-2020-AOV Dyn_Taylor-Radiant_Refinement-(ISX009E)-WEB-2020-KLIN Dynamic_Freakuencies-Acid_Portal-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Eddie_Bitar-The_Underdog-(BTRDR768)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Edgar_Weissenfels_and_Frank_Rest_-_Beethomania_Rhapsody-(4061707401299)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Edplacid_Patino_-_Euphorya-(RW007)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Edplacid_Patino_and_DJ_Kel-Eternity-(TMM115)-WEB-2020-AFO Edward_Rohm-La_Flaka-(VAU097)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Eklorian-Red_Skies-(UPRDIG107)-WEB-2020-KLIN Electric_Feel-Own_Reality-(PH0047)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Elegy-Inside_Remixes-WEB-2020-FALCON Elias-Full_Soul-(IR110)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Elitist-Keep_Pushing-(SUBMISSION197)-WEB-2020-AFO Emir_Guven-Save_My_Soul-(RDXRED163)-WEB-2020-AFO Emulate-Elements-(NH19320)-WEB-2020-KLIN Enarxis-One_Last_Dance-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Encount3r-El_Jefe-(SCR356)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Epidemika_and_LNYX-Without_U-(INFRA205)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Equator-Silence-(COHCL004)-WEB-2020-KLIN Equinox_2000_-_Above_and_Beyond-(5059580027773)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Eric_Zimmer-Delta-(IFECT028)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Erislandy-Totem-(MFORCE114)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Eryon_Stocker-Rhapsody-(MPURE114)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Escea--Qwertz_(Remixes)-(YV060)-WEB-2020-OMA Eternal_Basement-Reaching_Out-(HHSP2020)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ENSLAVE Eugenio_Tokarev-Melifluo-(WAO138297)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Eugenio_Tokarev-Melifluo-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AOV Evebe_and_Pittarius_Code-Infinity-(2RR061)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO EverLight-Hyperdrive-(NKF029)-WEB-2020-AFO Evgeny_Venge_-_Appeasement-(NS892)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Evolving_Suns_Audio_-_Mysterious_Forces-(BR449)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Eximinds_and_Andromeda-One_of_These_Days-(IHM110)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Eximinds_and_Hghlnd-The_Tempest-(ITP113E)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Exoprodigy-Dancing_On_The_Rain-(LRI001)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Exoprodigy-Raging_Wolf_On_The_Sky-(LRD001)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Extense-Desperate_Love-(EA075)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-wAx Ezechiel-Leg_Press-(TR158)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Ezequiel_Lovera-Two_Faces_EP-(UA097)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT F4T4L3RR0R-Glitch_In_The_Universe-(ASR250)-WEB-2020-AFO F4T4L3Rr0R-Glitch_In_The_Universe-(ASR250E1)-WEB-2020-KLIN F4T4L3RR0R-Glitch_In_The_Universe_(Extended_Mixes_Part_1)-(ASR250E1)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Fabian_Linden-Marguerite__The_Power_Of_Dreams-(TF044)-WEB-2020-AFO Fabio_XB_and_Linnea_Schossow_with_Khrys_Kloudz-Run_The_Sky-(DIGISOC354)-WEB-2020-AFO Fabrice-Black_Force-(MPS108)-WEB-2020-AFO Fabrice-La_Pioggia-(YR1309)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Fabrice-Legion_(Zarotta_Remix)-(TF027R)-WEB-2020-AFO Fabrice-Santuary-(WATR048)-WEB-2020-AFO Factor_B-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Farb-Chase_Of_Dreams-(MSBKR179)-WEB-2020-AFO Farb-Techno_Pilot-(MSBKR182)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Farhad_Mahdavi_and_Tricia_McTeague-You_Can_Run-(AMSTR341)-WEB-2020-AFO Farius-From_The_Start_(The_Extended_Mixes)-(ENPROG398E2)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Fatum_-_Faceless-SINGLE-WEB-2020-QMI Fatum_-_Faceless_(Extended_Mix)-(ARMD1547)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-QMI_INT FAWZY-Cosmic_Mission-(HG038)-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY-Resonating_Force-(SUBMISSION203)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT FAWZY-Survivor_(Remixes)-(YV079)-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY_-_Survivor-(YR1306)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC FAWZY_and_Anton_van_Sprundel-Astral_Projection-(EA078)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY_and_Anton_van_Sprundel-Forever_Today-(NRG029)-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY_and_Anton_van_Sprundel-Forever_Today-(NRG029)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT FAWZY_and_Cyril_Ryaz-Knocking_on_Heavens_Door_(In_Memory_of_Cyril_Ryaz)-(YR1307)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY_and_NuttaLyA_with_Han_Beukers-Eternal_Resistance_(Extended_Mix)-(SCR353)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO FAWZY_and_NuttaLyA_with_Han_Beukers-Eternal_Resistance_(Extended_Mix)-(SCR353)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Fear_And_Blade-Saya-(FB06)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Ferry_Corsten-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Ferry_Corsten_and_Ciaran_McAuley-Mo_Chara-(FLASH210)-WEB-2020-AFO Ferry_Corsten_and_Trance_Wax-Black_Lion-(FLASH213)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Ferry_Tayle-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Fertile-Round_Midnight-(ZOOEP161)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Fi-Fire-Radiation_Infection__Pill_Controller-(ESR442)-WEB-2020-AFO Fischer_and_Miethig_and_Rezwan_Khan-From_Munich_to_New_York-(NIX167)-WEB-2020-AFO Fisical_Project-Galaxia-(GLX001)-WEB-2020-AFO FloE_and_Amo_R-Eternal-(ENTRM184)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Flowjob_And_Novotech-Lets_Reconnect-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Fluidsky-Lucid_Emotions-(195395031934)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Flynn_and_Denton_and_Audrey_Gallagher-Say_My_Name_(Paul_Denton_Remix)-(SUBC203)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Flynn_and_Denton_and_Audrey_Gallagher-Say_My_Name_(Paul_Denton_Remix)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Fobi-The_Wolf_Is_Back-WEB-2020-FALCON Fred_Baker-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Fredd_Moz_and_Laucco-Live_and_Love_and_Laugh-(BTSR329)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Frederik_Behr-Stay_True-(19AB20)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Fredix-Back_To_The_Past-(NSM341)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Fredix-Breeze-(NSM352)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Freedom_Force-Positive_Energy-WEB-2020-NDE Freeman-Life_Goes_On-(EXD004)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Fuenka-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Funky_Gong-Buddha_Eye-(MD043)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Future_State-Arctica-SINGLE-WEB-2020-COS Future_State-Hyperform-SINGLE-WEB-2020-COS Fuzzy-Magical_Fuzz-(QUE012)-WEB-2020-PTC Gabriel_And_Dresden-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Gabriele_De_Santis-Skydive-(ENTRMR091)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Gabrielle_Ag-Wallachia-(MM038)-WEB-2020-KLIN Gai_Barone-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Galacticode-Shamanic_Spell-WEB-2020-FALCON Ganesh_Project-Nowhere_Near-(PP021)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Gary_Leroy-Stop_and_Go-(RDX395)-WEB-2020-AFO Gate_42-Flow-(DISCOVER12B)-WEB-2020-AOV Gee-Set_You_Free-(EGMSIN290)-WEB-2020-AFO Geneon-Celestial-(YL072)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Genzuru-Utopia-(AAR198)-WEB-2020-KLIN Geomystery--Ego_Is_A_Burning_Vehicle-WEB-2020-OMA Germind--Goa_Elixir-(PLX211)-WEB-2020-OMA Ginga-Mirakel-(TTR072)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Giuseppe_Ottaviani-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Giuseppe_Ottaviani-Till_We_Meet_Again-(ARMD1545)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Giuseppe_Ottaviani-Till_We_Meet_Again-(ARMD1545)-WEB-2020-AFO Giuseppe_Ottaviani-Till_We_Meet_Again-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Giuseppe_Ottaviani_-_Till_We_Meet_Again_(Extended_Mix)-(ARMD1545)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Glacial_Storm-Fallout-(DISCOVER269)-WEB-2020-AFO Glideslope-Elerium-(SGM2020020)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Glynn_Alan-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT GMS-The_G.M.S._Experiment-WEB-2020-FALCON Golden_Sky-On_The_Edge_and_Sand-(HCR371D)-WEB-2020-AFO Gonzalo_Bam_and_Milen_Ivanov-Hipnosia-(PVM075)-WEB-2020-AFO Grum_and_Genix-The_Light-(ANJ632D)-WEB-2020-AFO Guy_Townten-Dude_Knee-(EFF213)-WEB-2020-KLIN GXD_ft_Elle_Vee-Voices_(Photographer_Remix)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Habashi_-_Till_We_Meet_Again-(YV075)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Haikal_Ahmad-Sleeping_Shaa-(ESK096)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Hamza_Messaoudi_ft_Ernesto_Avilez-Road_To_Nowhere-(RDXM109)-WEB-2020-AFO HamzeH-Shiva-WEB-2020-AFO Hanney_Mackoll-Omnisphera-(195081822655)-WEB-2020-KLIN Hanski-Synesthesia-(AEP405)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Hardbeast-Survived-(UMH73)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Hardhauser_-_Wut-(4061707401671)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Haris_C_and_Nicolas_Menicou-Dont_Say_Goodbye-(WATR046)-WEB-2020-AFO Hatstandy-Living_In_Limbo-(470922)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Hays_and_RYDEX-Ulallappy-(PROG070A)-WEB-2020-AFO Hazmat_Haze-Come_Back-(BTRDR769)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Heisenberg--Thoughts-WEB-2020-OMA Henrik_Nilsson_-_An_Untold_Tale-(TPR94)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Henry_Caster-Perpetual_Sun-(BRX012)-WEB-2020-AOV Highlighter_-_The_Beginning_(Original_Mix)-(UST008)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Hinap-Explorations-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Hiromori_Aso-Noble-(AURALSN120)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Hit_The_Bass_and_Oraw_ft_Kate_Miles-Let_Me_Be-(RA112)-WEB-2020-AFO Hoopoe-Hutan-(PURETRANCE189)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Hoppenfield-Luminary-(195336163137)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Hoyaa_and_Joakim-La_Luna-(UN119)-WEB-2020-AFO Hoyaa_and_Joakim-La_Luna-(UN119)-WEB-2020-AOV Hroostovsky-Colloseum-(BMV007)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Human_Asteroid_Vs._Alter3d_Perception-Foxy_Methoxy-WEB-2020-FALCON Hyde-Oblivion-WEB-2020-FALCON Hypatia-La_Famille-WEB-2020-FALCON HyperPhysics-Between_Earth_and_Sky-(TRUE135)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT HyperPhysics-Between_Earth_and_Sky-(TRUE135A)-WEB-2020-AFO Hypnoise_And_Makida-Krkele-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Hypogean-Far_From_The_Ashes-(CS138)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Hypogean_-_M-shi_EP-(CS139)-WEB-2020-ZzZz I-Biz_-_New_Day-WEB-2020-KNOWN I_O_And_Lights_-_Annihilation_(Afterhours_Mix)-(MAU50331)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-QMI Ian_Source_and_Ann-Thalia-Feel_The_Same-(MNEOS004)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Ian_Stewart-Gravitation-(UPLY100)-WEB-2020-KLIN Ikerya_Project_ft_Robin_Vane-Kingdom-(ABRD227)-WEB-2020-AFO Ildrealex-Tears_Of_Joy-(ESI305)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Impact-Strange_Days_In_India-(SPN1DIGI603)-WEB-2020-KLIN Improvement-Acid_Sensation-(OVNIEP420)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Indecent_Noise-Acid_Rainmaker-(MA113)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Indecent_Noise-Acid_Rainmaker-(MA113)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-wAx Indecent_Noise-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Independent_Art_-_Nexus-(GERT0520)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Indra-Free_Fire-(BTRDR756)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Inigo__Rave-Fighting_Confinement-(NHW034)-WEB-2020-AFO Inner_Heart-Blown_Away-(GRVV0986)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Inner_Heart_-_Show-(YR1308)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FMC InnerSync-A_Gentle_Touch-(VRS093)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Inpsyde_Out-No_Fame-(4DS003)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Invisible_Reality-Spectral_Dimension-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Invisible_Reality-Visibility_2020_Edit-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Ithur-Rises-(RW005)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Ivan_G.M-Vy_Canis_Majoris-(UA095)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jack_Hollow-Sphere-(467820)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Jack_Hollow-Zebra-(470913)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Jacob_Vs._Thrive-Restless-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Jak_Aggas-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Jake_Hanker-Elevation-(TMM116)-WEB-2020-AFO James_Black_Presents-Time_Is_the_Fire-(DISCOVER268)-WEB-2020-AFO James_Kitcher_and_Adam_Taylor-The_Spirit_Within-(RGEN037)-WEB-2020-AFO James_Williams-Dreams_Of_Harper-(SCR360)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jameson_Tullar_and_Annabelle_Hayes-Dreaming_(SinStar_Remix)-(YV086)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Jameson_Tullar_and_Leanne_McCauley-Echo_In_The_Dark_(Tycoos_Remix)-(YR1312)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Jameson_Tullar_and_Leanne_McCauley-Echo_In_The_Dark_(Tycoos_Remix)-(YR1312)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jamie_Walker-Goliath-(OUT161)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jan_Miller-Incendium_(Incl._Divisional_Phrase_Remix)-WEB-2020-AOV Jardin-82-(ARD118)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Jaron_Inc.-Serenity-(PURETRANCE188)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jase_Thirlwall_ft._Victoriya_-_Drowning-(ASOT611)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Jason_Pascascio-Another_World-(195398541416)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Jaspercap-Slotted-(EFF196)-WEB-2020-KLIN Jaspercap_-_Worthwhile_Pains-(EFF206)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Jaxx_and_Vega_and_Outrage_and_Machado-Rave_Control-(RA111)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jay_Flynn-Resonate-(ART67)-WEB-2020-AFO Jay_Turio_ft_Kumiko_Mouri-Paradise-(AURALSN166)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jhonny_Vergel-Beloved_Wife-(RDX138150)-WEB-2020-AFO Jilax-On_Fire-(BTRDR766)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Jimmy_Chou-Domino_Effect__Krypto-(FSOEP112A)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jody_6-Commando-(MA114)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jody_6-Ill_Be_Your_Chemical-(RGEN040)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Joe_Cormack-Deep_Into_My_Mind_(The_Remixes)-(BTSR330)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Joe_Fares-Chance-(AURALSN153)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Joe_Fares-Falling_Star-(ALT090)-WEB-2020-AFO Joe_Fares-Sierra-(AURALSN104)-WEB-2020-AFO Joe_Fares-Stamina-(MSBKR180)-WEB-2020-AFO Joe_Fares-Stamina-(MSBKR180)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT John_Askew-Air_Guitar-(DISCOVER08B)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT John_Askew-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT John_Askew-Recalibrate_(Greg_Downey_Remix)-(VII055)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT John_Askew_and_Nick_Sentience-Mind_Control-(DISDAR08B)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT John_Grand-Iceberg-(ESR496)-WEB-2020-AFO John_Grand-Moondrifter-(EUPH320)-WEB-2020-AFO John_O_Callaghan-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT John_OO_Fleming-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Jon_Mangan-Flipside-(FSOEC106A)-WEB-2020-AFO Jonas_Steur-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Jopvandutch-Fuga-(SSM2156)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Jordan_Suckley-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Jordy_Eley-Euphoria_Injection-(INFRAR030)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jorn_Van_Deynhoven-Fiesta_del_Sol-(ARCV164)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Jorn_Van_Deynhoven-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Josecret-Prehispanic-(IND5EFEB4091374833)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Josh_Ames-Is_It_A_Dream-(TPR97)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Josh_Bailey-123-XYZ-(AEP402)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Joyline_Snow-Heart_Beating-(SDR363)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT JPL-A_Better_Daze_(Karanda_Remix)-(ENPROG400B)-WEB-2020-AFO Juin_Hoarden-Holidays_Before-(EFF204)-WEB-2020-KLIN Julio_Posadas-Illusions-(PRE166)-WEB-2020-KLIN K4Nciio-Shankara-(BLV7608399)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN K4ne_and_Ascendant--K4ne_The_Remixes-(U0028)-WEB-2020-OMA Kai_Tracid-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Kaimo_K-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Kaimo_K_and_Ana_Criado-When_To_Stop_Looking-(AMSTR342)-WEB-2020-AFO Kalki-Aura-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Kamaya_Painters-Far_From_Over_(Vision_X_Remix)-(NKR004)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT KandF-Multiverse-(AE408)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Katari_feat._Camille--Never_Escape_(Remixes)-(YR1299)-WEB-2020-OMA Kenneth_B-Believe_In_You-WEB-2020-KNOWN Kepik_x_David_Shane_-_Take_Me_There_(Incl._Triode_Remix)-(RA109)-WEB-2020-QMI Key_Lean-Oceans-(SND229)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Key_Lean-Oceans-(SND229A)-WEB-2020-AFO Key_Lean-Seascape_1985-(PROG072)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Key_Mind-Midnight_Sun-(10175040)-WEB-2020-KLIN Khairy_Ahmed_and_Eloquentia-Yalla_Trance-(KSX418)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Khalai-Cybercore-(DIGISOC369)-WEB-2020-AFO Khalai-Tempest-(INFRAR029)-WEB-2020-AFO Khalai-Tempest-(INFRAR029)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Khoa_Shake-Fusion-(29TRANCE0007)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Kido_Dee_vs_Bigtopo-Searching_Your_Love-(EA077)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Kimberly_Hale_and_Alex_Leavon-Theres_A_Storm-(RNMR195)-WEB-2020-AFO Kiran_M_Sajeev-Inborn-(INFRA204)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Klassy_Project_ft_Zak-So_Cold-(SUBMISSION196)-WEB-2020-AFO Kobi-Happy_Dance-WEB-2020-FALCON Kolonie-Inception-(WYM054)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Kolonie-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Kolplein-Our_Transition-(EFF205)-WEB-2020-KLIN Kolplein-Real_January-(EFF202)-WEB-2020-KLIN Kolplein-Thousand_Smiles-(EFF183)-WEB-2020-KLIN Kors-Dark_Flow-(BAL0026)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Kosta-Cybernetix-WEB-2020-FALCON Kreaminals-Saanson-(467611)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Ku3Biko-Exploit-(EMLCV99)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Lab4-Country_Club_Nye_2001-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Lab4_and_Baby_Doc-Generator-(HQ020)-WEB-2020-AFO Last_Soldier-Desert_Rose-(LSR024)-WEB-2020-AFO Last_Soldier-Liberation-(DIGISOC368)-WEB-2020-AFO Last_Soldier-Remixes_EP-(LSR023)-WEB-2020-AFO Last_Soldier-Tree_Of_Time-(LSR020)-WEB-2020-AFO Last_Soldier_and_Parsa_Q-Saturn-(LSR022)-WEB-2020-AFO Lastlings_-_No_Time_(Rufus_Du_Sol_Remix)-(LRLP0021N)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Leafar-Moon-(KR021)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Lee_Osborne-4am_At_The_Gallery-(COH022)-WEB-2020-AFO Legacy_One-Arkadia-(AAA026)-WEB-2020-AFO Leko_Deep-Mars_To_Earth-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Leo_Dantes_and_Kevin_Hoskin-Project_Fear-(MCS91)-WEB-2020-AFO Leon_Bogod-Dreams-(SDR356)-WEB-2020-AFO Leon_Bolier-Perpetual-SINGLE-FLASH212-WEB-2020-TraX Leopld-Come_Through-(RU239446)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Lepi-Point_Of_No_Return-(SCR357)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Liam_Van_Hoven-Ruth-(SDR367)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Liam_Wilson_and_Nash-The_Instigator-(FSOE462A)-WEB-2020-AFO Light_and_Shadow-In_Your_Memory-(YR1315)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Limit_X_-_A_Lifelong_Friendship__World_In_Your_Hands-(DTCR028)-WEB-2020-ZzZz Limitless-Kira-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON Lior_E_and_Kobi_White_-_Matador-(AR064)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-ZzZz Liquid_Sun--Interdimensional_Phenomena-(UGR006)-WEB-2020-OMA Liuck-Novembre-(ENTRME017)-WEB-2020-AFO Liz_Cirelli_and_Ples_Jones_vs_Manuel_Rocca-Rise-(LEV128)-WEB-2020-AFO Logman_N_Pstump-Interface-WEB-2020-FALCON LOKIMusic_and_Omarilzz-Desert_Prayer-(WATR047)-WEB-2020-AFO London_and_Niko-Rise-(SDR362)-WEB-2020-AFO London_and_Niko-Rise-(SDR362)-WEB-2020-AFO_INT Lostly-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT Loudwave-Darkness-(DCR118)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Louvie_Lost-No_Palavas-(195395330297)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN LOV3TT-If_You_Should_Go-(YL069)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO Lr_Uplift-Anya-(ABRD224)-WEB-2020-KLIN LR_Uplift-Way_Home_(Extended_Mix)-(SCR348)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-AFO LR_Uplift-We_Must_Live-(ABRD226)-WEB-2020-AFO LR_Uplift-We_Must_Live-(ABRD226)-WEB-2020-AOV Lukaone-Hidden_Kingdom-(RRD13)-SINGLE-WEB-2020-KLIN Luke_Bond_ft._Sarah_De_Warren_-_Satellites-(ARMD1549)-WEB-2020-QMI_INT Luke_Bond_ft_Sarah_De_Warren-Walk_Away-(ARMD1539)-WEB-2020-AFO Lurker_Vs._N3xu5-Dystopian_Dawns-WEB-2020-FALCON Lydia-Find_Your_Light-SINGLE-WEB-2020-FALCON M.i.k.e._Push-Luminosity_Beach_Festival_2020-LIVE-WEB-2020-XTC_iNT M4TT-Open_Your_Eyes-(PHAT081)-WEB-2020-AFO Maarten_De_Jong_vs_Corti_Organ-Flash-(WAO138293)-WEB-2020-AFO 
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2020.08.09 02:08 CapybaraWookiee [S] Capy's Survivor: Pearl Island (S7)

Hello, and welcome or welcome back to Capy's Survivor! This season we are going to the magnificent Pearl Islands! We are once again playing the game of outwitting, outplaying, and outlasting your fellow castaways, whether that be by flirtatious behavior, backstabbing your opponents, or making plenty of allies. This is Capy's Survivor: Pearl Islands!
MEET THE CASTAWAYS:
Drake Tribe:
Morgan Tribe:
The Season: Capy's Survivor: Pearl Islands
Episode 1: The host welcomes the tribes to the camp, after getting off the boat. He announces that for the first time since Marquesas, there will be no twist deciding the tribes. After this announcement, he announces the tribes. On the Drake Tribe is Amos, Carter, Dex, Fadia, June, Neleh, Nick, and Sanna. On the Morgan Tribe is Allie, Ben, Brad, Emerson, Georgia, River, Romeo, and Tara. After announcing the tribes, he tells them that they can head back to their respective camps to settle in before their first immunity challenge tomorrow.
At the Drake camp, Dexter, Neleh, and Sanna connect immediately, and they form a very early final three pact. Amos, Carter, Fadia, and June form another alliance to combat that one. Due to Dex knowing about the alliance, he hopes to get Nick as a swing vote. At the Morgan camp, River isn’t hesitating to form an alliance, she chooses Allie because she seems nice and she could be helpful when it comes to mental challenges. She also chooses Romeo because he can be used as a meatshield. She approaches Ben for the same very reason. Brad knows about this alliance, and knowing his brother is in the alliance (Romeo), he wants to form a separate alliance, so he approaches Tara, Emerson, and Georgia with a deal for alliances. Georgia declines because she wants to hang low and play more under-the-radar, at least for the early game. But Emerson and Tara accept, and Brad hopes he earned Georgia’s trust and vote by approaching her, as River did not.
The Morgan tribe wins the immunity challenge, also winning water-proof matches. This means that the Drake tribe will be going to tribal. At the Drake camp, Fadia isolates herself, feeling as though she caused her tribe to not win, quitting her alliance in the process, but saying she will still vote with them. They say that they are voting for Neleh, which is a lie, as they are planning on voting their old ally out. They convince Nick to vote with them, as she is untrustworthy for joining the alliance, just to leave it a couple of days into the game. Nick tells the alliance of Sanna, Neleh, and Dex about this, and he claims it was Amos’ scheme. They approach Fadia with the plan, and she agrees to vote with them for Amos. River, even though she is the creator of the alliance, quits the alliance and isolates herself, because even though her tribe won, it was just barely, and she thinks she is the main cause of that. At tribal council, by a vote 5-3, Amos, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 2: The Drake tribe wins the reward challenge, winning themselves the first of three pieces of a treasure map to hidden treasure. They also send Carter to loot one item from the opposing tribes camp, he takes their matches. The Morgan tribe, even though they are now match-less, they still win the immunity challenge, meaning that the Drake tribe will be going to their second tribal in a row. At the Morgan camp, the alliance of Allie, Ben, and Romeo dissolves since their leader, River, left the alliance. Sanna, Dex, and Neleh approach Nick saying that they are voting off Carter, as he is a psychical threat. But Carter and June approach Fadia and Nick, claiming that Dex should be the one going home, as he is untrustworthy, and he holds the tribe back in challenges. At tribal council, by a vote of 4-3, Dex, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 3: The Drake tribe wins both reward and their first immunity challenge. Drake also wins their second piece of the treasure map, only one remaining now. They steal a couple of pieces of firewood from the opposing tribes’ camp. At the Morgan tribe, River approaches her old alliance, stating that she knows she betrayed them, but she wants Brad gone, as he is a psychical threat to their game at the moment. While Allison is hesitant at first, as she believes you should wait until near-merge to vote out people who can help in challenges. But Romeo rallying for getting his brother out sparks her interest more. While the other alliance is planning on voting out River, as she has proven to be untrustworthy. At tribal council, there is a tie, and only then does River realize her mistake in not approaching someone else, but shockingly it’s not Allie who wants to change her vote, it’s Ben, as he thinks that River can’t be trusted. At tribal council, by a vote of 4-4, and a revote of 4-2, River, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 4: Drake wins their third reward challenge, also winning the final piece of the map. That finally leads them to the buried treasure, which contains luxury items to make camp life easier. They also steal more firewood from the Morgan camp. The Drake tribe also wins immunity, and, because of the pirate theme this season, they get to kidnap a player off the other tribe to bring onto their tribe. They choose Brad, as they know he is good in psychical challenges. By kidnapping him, they also give him immunity because he can skip tribal council. Fadia and Sanna have a fight about not Sanna not doing her part in helping around camp. Tara, Emerson, and Brad become a very strong alliance, even though Brad is skipping tribal council that night. Allie and Ben want to vote for Georgia because she is a social threat. But Romeo isn’t for it, and he approaches the other alliance without his alliance knowing, and tells them what they are doing and that he will vote with them in exchange for safety. They agree to these terms and say they are voting for Allison, one, because if they don’t get her out now, she might float her way to the end, and two, with this new information, that puts a bigger target on her back. Allie and Ben approach Emerson, asking him to vote with them, because Georgia will socialize her way out of being the target. He acts convinced. At tribal council, by a vote of 4-2, Allie, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 5: Brad will be competing with the Drake tribe for only this reward challenge, as he was kidnapped by them, but will head back to camp with the Morgan tribe afterward. Despite this, the Morgan tribe wins their first reward challenge, winning a bunch of luxury items and their first piece of the treasure map. The Drake tribe secures its third immunity. At the Drake tribe, Fadia and Neleh have a major fight over Fadia arguing with Sanna about not doing anything, but she is truly the one not pitching in. At the Morgan camp, tensions are rising due to them having to vote out another person. Emerson, Brad, and Tara tell Ben and Romeo that they will be voting for Georgia. Romeo doesn’t agree, so he makes plans with Georgia and Ben to try to rock out someone. But Ben doesn’t want to take the risk of getting rocked out. At tribal council, by a vote 4-2, Georgia, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 6: The Morgan tribe wins the reward challenge, winning their second piece of the treasure map and stealing a blanket from the Drake tribe. They also win the immunity, sending Drake to tribal council for the first time since episode 2. June and Carter hatch a deal with Neleh and Sanna, in exchange for voting together, they eliminate Fadia, who has been a target since day one for her prowess in challenges and socially, and because she causes constant drama at camp. They agree, But then Nick and Fadia approach Carter and June with a plan to vote out Neleh, as she is an under-the-radar player, who might float her way to the end. But since they just sold their souls (votes) to Neleh and Sanna, they don’t think its a good idea to get on their bad side right now. At tribal council, by a vote of 4-2, Fadia, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 7: When the tribes head over to the immunity challenges, they see a strange sight, standing by the host is 6 other people, as they get closer, they realize those six people are the six eliminated castaways. The host announces that this is the Outcast twist. There will be 3 teams competing in the immunity challenge, and the Outcast twist works like this. If The Outcasts beat one tribe, that tribe will have to go to Tribal Council and vote a player off. The Outcasts will then vote one player back into the game. If the Outcasts beat both tribes, Morgan and Drake will both go to Tribal Council, and both vote a player off. The Outcasts would then vote two players back into the game in that scenario. If both Drake and Morgan win, The Outcasts' chance to get back in the game will be forfeited. The Outcasts win the immunity and they will be voting two people back into the game. The alliance of Emerson, Tara, and Brad dissolve, so they don’t have a target on their back heading into the double-elimination, and the merge.
At the Drake camp, Carter and June are targeting Sanna, while Sanna and Neleh are targeting Carter. Both of the duos approach Nick, and he decides on the person he most deems a threat comes to the merge, as he knows it is happening soon. At the Morgan camp, Brad and Romeo decide to team up against Brad’s former allies Tara and Emerson, as they are threats strategically and psychically, they also convince Ben to vote with them in exchange for safety. Emerson and Tara also offer the same thing, saying they are voting Romeo out, and Ben thinks, about who he should align with, and who he should vote out the psychical threat, or strategic threat.
Everyone arrives at the tribal council area, and sit down on the jury benches. The host announces that the Drake tribe is going first. At tribal council (A), by a vote of 3-2, Carter, the tribe has spoken. The host then announces that the Morgan tribe is up next. At tribal council (B), by a vote of 3-2, Tara, the tribe has spoken. Ben decided strategic is better to vote out, as it is better to align yourself with challenge beasts come to the merge. The host finally calls up the Outcasts, and they said, even though it was a hard decision, as everyone wanted to come back into the game, they decided that the first and last person eliminated should return. Therefore, Amos and Fadia are headed back into the game.
Episode 8: The host calls the contestants to the challenge area, and announces the merge. He also congratulates Amos, Ben, Brad, Emerson, Fadia, June, Neleh, Nick, Romeo, and Sanna on making it to the merge. Neleh and Sanna keep their final two pact, as they always intended. They also ally with Amos, Fadia, June, and Nick as the original Drake tribe, for votes. Ben, Brad, Emerson, and Romeo align as the original Morgan tribe, and hope to find a weak spot in the other alliance, and hope to poke it enough so that they either dissolve or vote one of their own members out. Neleh wins the immunity challenge. The Morgan tribe attempts to convince June that Nick is more of a threat than any of them and that they will just boot her when they need to. She disagrees, saying that they will boot the outcasts. The Drake alliance decides on voting out Romeo, as he is untrustworthy, a psychical threat, and a strategic threat. At tribal council, by a vote of 6-4, Romeo, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 9: Neleh wins the reward challenge, and already being in the majority alliance, decides to bring her final two partners, Sanna, for the reward instead of trying to gain someone’s trust. Neleh wins her second immunity in a row, painting a big target on her and Sanna’s back, making Neleh feel like she just made a big mistake. The Drake alliance decide that Fadia is the best target, even though she is in their alliance, they can spare the vote. But Amos tells Fadia about this, who goes to Emerson, Brad, and Ben with this info, and they tell them that they will vote with them for safety. They agree, and with this Emerson also tells them that June told the alliance that the Drake alliance would vote out the outcast if worst comes to worst, with this information, Fadia goes and blackmails Julie with it, saying that if she doesn’t give them their vote, she will get her eliminated. Julie agrees, and together they decide that Nick is their biggest threat, pulling a Borneo and completely forgetting in the heat of the moment that Neleh has won all three individual challenges. At tribal council, by a vote of 6-3, Nick, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 10: June wins reward and takes Fadia with her. Ben wins the immunity challenge. Sanna and Neleh tell Fadia, Amos, and June that they will be voting for Brad. But they keep June and Amos afterward to tell them that they are really voting for Fadia. Amos obviously, and obliviously tells Fadia about this, who takes June (unwillingly) to the Morgan tribe, and tells them the situation. They agree, but under one condition, they have to vote Amos out. Fadia doesn’t want to, but if it means saving herself, then she will. Once again she “convinces” June to vote with them in exchange for not revealing the secret and painting a target on June’s back. At tribal council, by a vote of 5-3, Amos, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 11: June wins her second reward challenge in a row, whilst Ben wins his second immunity in a row. June is approached by the Morgan tribe, and they tell her that they are planning on voting out Fadia in the next tribal. June happily agrees, but after thinking, if Fadia finds out, she will tell everyone about revealing her alliances’ information to the rival alliance, and she will be eliminated. Also, eliminating Fadia would mean that their alliance would be neck-and-neck in votes with the other alliance. Due to not sitting well with the rest of the castaways recently, the Drake alliance decides to vote for Emerson. At tribal council, by a vote of 4-3, Emerson, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 12: Sanna, June, and Ben beat Brad, Fadia, and Neleh in the reward challenge. Ben wins immunity for the third time in a row. Brad and Ben plan on voting for June, and Fadia, whilst hesitant, decides to vote with them, as she is certain that her alliance is voting for her. Her suspicions are correct, June, Sanna, and Neleh are targeting Fadia, but they tell her they are voting for Brad, trying to cause a 3-2-1 vote. At tribal council, there is a tie between June and Fadia, and there must be a revote. The revote is two votes June and two votes Fadia. Meaning that for the first time ever in the history of Capy’s Survivor, there will be a rock draw. The host calls Neleh, Sanna, and Brad up to draw rocks, as Ben has immunity. He instructs them to flip over their rocks. Brad, the tribe has spoken.
Episode 13: June shares her reward with Ben, hoping to gain his vote. Neleh just barely wins immunity over Ben, ending his streak. Despite her efforts, Ben and Fadia agree that they are voting June, and try to convince Sanna and Neleh. Afterward, they decide that they deny the offer, that Fadia is a much bigger threat than June in all aspects. At tribal council, by a vote of 3-2, Fadia, the tribe has spoken.
Finale, Part 1: Ben wins his fourth immunity. Sanna and Neleh are planning on voting for June. But June and Ben are planning on voting for Neleh and hoping to cause a fire-making challenge, as they think June would beat Neleh. But June doesn’t think so and thinks it should be Sanna, and Jake doesn’t argue back, making June think that he agrees, when he is really just getting her eliminated. At tribal council, by a vote of 2-1-1, June, the tribe has spoken.
Finale, Part 2: Neleh wins the final immunity. Knowing that she will win against Sanna, but not Ben, and she also has had a final two pact and a close friendship with Sanna all season, Neleh chooses Sanna to bring to the reunion with her. At tribal council, by a vote of 1-0, Ben, the tribe has spoken.
The Reunion: At the Reunion, after Sanna and Neleh both state their cases. Neleh states that she won 5 challenges in all, whilst Sanna only won 2, and one of those was a group challenge. Also, stating that she also got a lot less blood on her hands than Sanna. Sanna retaliates with she could have won more challenges if she had not allied with Neleh, a challenge beast. She also said that the only reason she had blood on her hands was that Neleh relied on her to do all the dirty work. Congratulation, Neleh Brown, you are the winner of Capy’s Survivor: Pearl Islands!
My Opinions: This was a similar situation to Marquesas, except with less flashy moves. Was an amazing cast, and a good season, but everyone relied on their alliances too much. Neleh and Sanna were a power duo and deserved to make it to the end. Neleh was definitely a deserving winner. Fadia was the evilest person on the planet. June and Fadia both made it surprisingly far, despite seeming to have their name on the block week in and week out. Ben was a challenge beast. River went too early, I think she could’ve been a real competitor. Despite starting out in a minority alliance, and then being just the two of them with a season full of giant alliances, I don’t even know how Neleh and Sanna survived. Ben’s move at the final four was genius. That’s all I have to say. Romeo would probably be the best pre-jury pick of this season (what I mean by that is the person on the pre-jury who I think would have done well if they went farther. Examples are Lexie in season 4, Nina in Season 5, and Mariangel in Season 6). I'm also happy about the first-ever rock draw!
Possible All-Stars: Neleh, Sanna, Ben, June, Fadia, Brad, Romeo
Leave your opinions about future all-stars, your favorites, and the season itself down below.
All-Star polls will be out shortly
submitted by CapybaraWookiee to BrantSteele [link] [comments]


2020.07.30 00:21 HonestMission An LGBTQ culture and media starter pack (not a question; LONG list of recommendations)

Hi! I've recently noticed that there has been several posts from gaybros who seem to feel really disconnected from and disengaged with the LGBTQ community. That's understandable, especially when these uncertain times mean that most people aren't in a good frame of mind or at their best.
Seeing that we're all socially distancing, and perhaps still under some form of lockdown, I thought that it would be a good idea to post a (warning: LONG) reading/watching/listening list, given that some of us have plenty of spare time on our hands. I hope that you enjoy discovering something new!
I love many items, and care a lot less for others, but I've tried to approach this objectively. Some music suggestions, btw, aren't by LGBTQ artists, but all of them have appealed varyingly to our community. I've also omitted the really obvious stuff, such as Brokeback Mountain, Madonna and Will & Grace etc.
Feel free to contribute and add your own favourites! A special thanks goes to my good friend, u/Manor4548, for getting the ball rolling with his excellent suggestions. Also, if our excellent mods feel that this post in inappropriate, I'm more than happy to remove it. Please take care and stay safe!
Books
Giovanni's Room by James Baldwin (1956) - intelligent and thoughtful novel from a black gay writer, whose seminal work is currently more important than ever
Quatrefoil: A Modern Novel by James BarJames Fugaté (1950) - ground-breaking romance novel about two men who ultimately reach of point of self-confidence and acceptance
Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic by Alison Bechdel (2006) - lesbian-themed graphic memoir
Senses series by Andrew Grey (2012-2016) - frothy and sentimental yet endearing and engaging romance novels about disabled gay men
Outskirts: Living Life On The Edge by John Grindrod (2017) - part history of the green belt and part memoir of growing up in the British countryside as a gay youngster
Maurice by EM Forster (1971) - posthumously published novel, from the author of Howard's End, which was originally written between 1913 and 1914
The Swimming Pool Library (1988), The Spell (1998) and The Line Of Beauty (2004) by Alan Hollingworth - accomplished and boundary-pushing novelist who explores British gay socio-culture
Tigers & Devils series by Sean Kennedy (2009-2019) - idealistic yet thoroughly likeable romance novels about a charmingly misanthropic movie festival director and a kind yet closeted Australian footballer
The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway (1926) - accidentally queer novel that concerns toxic masculinity; this Literary Hub article provides an excellent introduction to the unintentional queerness of Hemingway's work
Trans: A Memoir by Juliet Jacques (2015) - a British memoir about gender transition, with some thoughtful reflections on trans politics
Insignificant Others by Stephen McCauley (2010) - fun and smart "slice of life" novel about a 50-something gay man
Red, White & Royal Blue by Casey McQuiston (2019) - playful teen romcom about a bisexual First Son who develops feelings for an English prince
The Last Romeo by Justin Myers (2018) - 30-something Bridget Jones-esque comedy of errors romance about a gay British web journalist who starts a dating blog
The Charioteer by Mary Renault (1953) - cerebral, moving and ultimately positive historical novel, set in a military hospital during World War II, which has prominent themes of repression and self-discovery
A Natural by Ross Raisin (2017) - subtle British novel about a closeted and introverted soccer player
Coming Out To Play by Robbie Rogers with Eric Marcus (2014) - if you love soccer and prefer non-fiction, however, then you might like this memoir from the first openly gay MLS player
Naked by David Sedaris (1997) - a collection of 40-something autobiographical essays from a gay humourist
Real Life by Brandon Taylor (2020) - gay-themed campus novel where a black doctoral student comes of age in a midwestern town
Out Of The Woods by Luke Turner (2019) - frank, intimate and sexually explicit British memoir that deals with bisexuality, religion, sexual abuse, outdoor sex, internalised homophobia and binary labels
Check, Please! by Ngozi Ukazu (2013-2020) - hilarious webcomic about an adorkable gay figure skater, who loves baking and joins his college's ice hockey team-cum-fraternity
Upside Down by NR Walker (2019) - Australian comedy romance involving two homoromantic asexuals
The Less Than Epic Adventures Of TJ & Amal by EK Weaver (2009-2014) - webcomic where a gay slacker comes out and goes on a road trip
Movies & TV
Banana Fish (2018) - anime TV series, based on a magna from the '80s, with a gay male co-protagonist
Beautiful Thing (1996) - idealistic yet 100% charming and pandemic-friendly coming out teen romance, which oozes summery cinematography in one of London's brutalist council estates; Jonathan Harvey later wrote the BBC sitcoms Gimme Gimme Gimme (1999-2001) and Beautiful People (2008-2009)
BPM (2017) - charismatic and moving French drama about HIV-AIDS activism in the early '90s
Bob & Rose (2001) - acclaimed yet short-lived British comedy-drama series, from the creator of Queer As Folk, about an openly gay male school teacher who starts a relationship with a woman
Boy Meets Girl (2015-2016) - realistic enough yet very slight BBC sitcom about a 26-year-old man who falls in love with a 40-year-old trans woman
The Broken Hearts Club: A Romantic Comedy (2000) - likeable, peppy, relatable, upbeat and generally unproblematic "slice of life" movie, about a gay friendship group, from the director of the problematic and overrated Love, Simon; co-stars John Mahoney, Dean Cain and a young Zach Braff
Dead Poets Society (1989) and School Ties (1992) - deeply homoerotic prep school movies
Edge Of Seventeen (1998) - arguably the most realistic coming out movie ever made, although the emphasis is firmly on the "coming of age" side of things
End Of The Century (2019) - 30-something Argentine holiday romance, which is heavily inspired by Before Sunrise and set in Barcelona
Happy Endings (2011-2013) - underrated 20-something American sitcom, with a loveable co-protagonist that's undoubtedly a beacub
Gaycation (2016-2017) - global travel documentary series, co-presented by Ellen Page, which has an LGBTQ slant
Grandma's House (2010-2012) - naturalistic BBC sitcom about a gay son and his Jewish family
Jeffrey (1995) - subversive AIDS-themed romantic comedy which, despite an outstanding supporting performance from Patrick Stewart that really should have garnered an Oscar nomination, is flawed and an acquired taste
Latter Days (2003) and The Falls (2012) - ultra low-budget romantic dramas about gay Mormons, but ultimately more pandemic-friendly than the conversion therapy drama Boy Erased (2018)
Longtime Companion (1989) and The Normal Heart (2014) - emotional and touching dramas about the HIV-AIDS crisis in NYC; Matt Bomer and Jim Parsons' performances in the latter merit special praise
Love Is Strange (2014) - 60-something romantic drama about discrimination and family, starring John Lithgow and Alfred Molina
Love, Valour, Compassion (1997) - melodramatic comedy-drama about a 40-something gay friendship group, although this one is a bitchier and snarkier watch than The Broken Hearts Club; features a star turn from Jason Alexander as a dying HIV-AIDS patient
Maurice (1987) - excellent period drama adaptation of EM Forster's novel; co-stars a young Hugh Grant
A Moment In The Reeds (2017) - romantic drama where a Finnish man bonds with a Syrian asylum seeker at a lakehouse
My Beautiful Laundrette (1985) - pioneering British comedy-drama that critiques racism and Thatcherism, among other things, with a prominent gay subplot; co-stars a young Daniel Day-Lewis
My Own Private Idaho (1991) - surreal road trip drama, partially based on Shakespeare's Henry IV and Henry V, about street hustlers; directed by Gus Van Sant, and starring Keanu Reeves and River Phoenix
Mysterious Skin (2004) - dark, difficult and uncompromising independent drama about the effect of historic sexual abuse on a gay teenage hustler; stars a young Joseph Gordon-Levitt
1985 (2018) - excellent monochrome drama about a closeted and dying man with HIV-AIDS, who is trying to come out to his conservative and suburban family at Christmas
Ocean Waves (1993) - underrated and accidentally queer TV movie from Studio Ghibli; if you don't mind spoilers, then this YouTube video comprehensively explains why Ocean Waves is accidentally queer
Open To Question: Justin Fashanu (1992) - Justin Fashanu, the first openly gay professional soccer player and first black player to command a £1m transfer fee, is interviewed on a Q&A programme for young people; it has been archived online by the BBC as an important historical document
Outland (2012) and Please Like Me (2013-2016) - two Australian comedy series; the former is about five members of an LGBTQ sci-fi club and the latter is about a newly out millennial slacker (which co-stars Pippa from Home & Away!)
Pain & Glory (2019) - Pedro Almodóvar's most recent and arguably most accomplished movie
Paris Is Burning (1990) - important long-form BIPOC/BAME documentary about NYC ballroom culture
Priscilla, Queen Of The Desert (1994) - inspired road trip comedy about three Australian drag queens
Queer Britain (2017) - excellent BBC youth documentary series about LGBTQ issues in Britain, with episodes dedicated to religion, body image, homelessness, racism, porn, and queer identity
Self-Portrait in 23 Rounds: A Chapter In David Wojnarowicz's Life, 1989-1991 (2018) and Keith Haring: Street Art Boy (2020) - long-form documentaries about two iconic gay artists, who died from HIV
Shelter (2007) - cute yet slight low-budget drama about gay self-discovery in the American suburbs
Sum Of Us (1994) - thoroughly affable Australian comedy-drama about a gay son and his accepting father; co-stars a young and pre-fame Russell Crowe
Tales Of The City series (1993, 1998, 2001, 2019) - TV adaptation of seminal gay novel and its sequels
A Taste of Honey (1961) - monochrome kitchen sink dramedy, with a gay male supporting character, which is set in Manchester
Tofu (2015) - short-form web documentary series, from the creator of Queer As Folk, which explores modern attitudes towards sex, with a heavy emphasis on the LGBTQ side of it
Trick (1999) - please take this idealistic overnight romance with a pinch of salt - even if it realistically tackles internalised homophobia in a way that Love, Simon never managed to do - but this superb dramedy is still one of the best and most pandemic-friendly gay movies
The Outs (2012-2013, 2016) - largely realistic and utterly charming web drama about gay adulting in NYC, with a peerless soundtrack; I low-key stan the loveable Jack and Scruffy
Verbotene Liebe (2007-2013) - surprisingly good supercouple plot from a German soap opera, involving a bisexual amateur boxer turned horse trainer, Christian, and his boyfriend/husband, Oliver
The Way He Looks (2014) - cute Brazilian teen romance about blindness and self-discovery
The Wedding Banquet (1993) - Oscar-nominated romantic comedy from China, directed by Ang Lee
Weekend (2011) - minimalist and naturalistic weekend romance, set in the outskirts of Nottingham
Wild Reeds (1994) - Cannes-nominated sexual awakening teen drama, set in early '60s France
Music
Little Earthquakes by Tori Amos (1992) - a very strong introduction to eccentric yet loveable piano-led college pop-rock
Northern Star by Melanie C (1999) - British equivalent of Madonna's seminal Ray Of Light (1998)
Blue Bell Knoll (1988) and Heaven Or Las Vegas (1990) by Cocteau Twins - pioneering ambient dream-pop, which are perhaps the ideal albums for jerk-off sessions and physical intimacy
Doppelgänger by Curve (1992) - a gothic, melodramatic and moody fusion of shoegaze and industrial electronica; fans of Garbage will LOVE this album
No Angel by Dido (1999) - another album that's ideal for masturbation and sex
Disgraceful by Dubstar (1995) - slightly out of time, albeit still excellent, synth-pop from the mid '90s
Chorus by Erasure (1991) - analogue-based synth-pop; will interest those into video game soundtracks, given that it practically sounds like music from Amiga titles at various points
Amplified Heart by Everything But The Girl (1994) - eloquent fusion of acoustic folk-pop and electronica; Tracey Thorn's Record (2018) further consolidated her appeal to the LGBTQ community
Sue (1989) and Ray (1991) by Frazier Chorus - arty and gentle woodwind-based synth-pop that also has the bitchiest and most subversive lyrics imaginable
Chemistry by Girls Aloud (2005) and Emotion by Carly Rae Jepsen (2015) - bubblegum pop artists that throw curveballs by unexpectedly moving into indie-baiting dance-pop territory
Black Cherry by Goldfrapp (2003), State Of Mind by Holly Valance (2003), Come & Get It by Rachel Stevens (2005) and Trip The Light Fantastic by Sophie Ellis-Bextor (2007) - highly regarded electropop albums from the mid-2000s
Françoise Hardy Sings In English by Françoise Hardy (1966), Infamous Angel by Iris DeMent (1992), Whatever by Aimee Mann (1993) and Out Of Range by Ani DiFranco (1994) - refined and superior singer-songwriter material
Paradise AKA Big Fun by Inner City (1989), Adeva by Adeva (1989), And Still I Rise by Alison Limerick (1992) and Everybody's Free by Rozalla (1992) - underrated diva house albums from the late '80s and early '90s
Bonito Generation by Kero Kero Bonito (2016) - day-glo dance-pop that's heavily influenced by The B-52s, J-pop, video game soundtracks, dancehall culture and mid-'90s Eurodance
The Death Of Cool by Kitchens Of Distinction (1992), Copper Blue by Sugar (1992), The Sound Of McAlmont & Butler by McAlmont & Butler (1995), D-D-Don't Stop The Beat by Junior Senior (2002), The Smell Of Our Own by The Hidden Cameras (2003), i by The Magnetic Fields (2004) and Silent Alarm by Bloc Party (2005) - indie bands that are fronted/co-fronted by openly gay men
Thinking It Over by Liberty X (2002) - surprisingly good R&B-led pop from talent show runner-ups
Crooked Mile by Microdisney (1987) - includes Rack, one of the most articulate songs ever written about AIDS; the same applies to It Couldn't Happen Here from Actually by Pet Shop Boys (1987)
Light Years by Kylie Minogue (2000) - perhaps the most cohesive introduction to the Australian queen
Loveless by My Bloody Valentine (1991) - Mysterious Skin undoubtedly proves that shoegaze has LGBTQ appeal, although this is challenging stuff and not for the faint-hearted
Passive Soul by Orlando (1997) - fragile and wallflowery pop that puts a heavy slant on the eclectic
Behaviour by Pet Shop Boys (1990), Echoes by Will Young (2011) and Choreography by Bright Light Bright Light (2016) - gay introspection from 30-something Brits
Very by Pet Shop Boys (1993) and The Tension & The Spark by Darren Hayes (2004) - 30-something coming out albums
Different Class by Pulp (1995) and Coming Up by Suede (1996) - camp and glamorous yet laddy and seedy Britpop, which is largely preoccupied with drugs and sex
A Secret Wish by Propaganda (1985) - gothic and literate synth-pop from Düsseldorf
Body Talk by Robyn (2010) - boundary-pushing dance-pop from the Swedish queen
Original Soundtrack by S-Express (1989) - one of the first UK house music albums to have originated from LGBTQ nightclubs
Foxbase Alpha (1991), So Tough (1993) and Tales From Turnpike House (2005) by Saint Etienne - summery indie-dance cultural love letters to London; Pedro Almodóvar is a big fan of them
Hormonally Yours by Shakespeares Sister (1992) - gothic, melodramatic, sassy and vampy glam pop-rock
We Are Shampoo by Shampoo (1994) and On The Loose by Deuce (1995) - unashamedly trashy bubblegum pop; the latter band was created by former Pet Shop Boys manager Tom Watkins
Non-Stop Erotic Cabaret by Soft Cell (1981) and Youthquake by Dead Or Alive (1985) - camp and melodramatic synth-pop from northern England
Illinois (2005) and Carrie & Lowell (2015) by Sufjan Stevens - if you've seen the movie Call Me By Your Name (2017), then you'll know who this guy is
La Varieté by Weekend (1982), Life by The Cardigans (1995), The Sound Of Music by Pizzicato Five (1995) and Good Humor by Saint Etienne (1998) - fey, kitschy and peppy lounge indie-pop
Titanic Rising by Weyes Blood (2019), Saint Cloud by Waxahatchee (2020) and Punisher by Phoebe Bridgers (2020) - minimalist indie for hipsters
YouTubers
Sam Cushing - likeably grounded and motivated guy who plays the piano and loves his workouts
Riyadh Khalaf - the Iranian-Irish vlogger presenter of Queer Britain
Husband & Husband - nerdy married couple who write comic books and fantasy novels
LanceTheDriver - adorable mature student who loves cars and constantly strives to do good
Eric Mason - endearing and insightful lyrical breakdowns of songs by pop divas
Jacob Michael - cerebral and eloquent musings on the state of modern gay life
PK Creedon - good natured sporty couple who authentically fuse their femininity and masculinity
PJ & Thomas - lovely suburban couple who work in real estate and have adopted a trio of toddlers
Michael Rizzi and Dominick Whelton - sweet city boys who love their fashion and pop culture
Noah Roth and Christian Cook - wholesome college-aged couple who love painting and the outdoors
Stepsof2Foreigners - articulate and refined American-Brazilian couple who are into their travel
submitted by HonestMission to AskGaybrosOver30 [link] [comments]


2020.06.15 01:43 Lost-Morning Cadeia de Ma Zigu Peng Yunhui: Na vida de uma criança, não há "um passo" ao acaso, deve haver um "plano"! O Mazars Valley desenvolveu o "Manual do Proprietário para mães e filhos de 0 a 6 anos"

Cadeia de Ma Zigu Peng Yunhui: Na vida de uma criança, não há
妈仔谷连锁彭云辉:孩子的人生,“一步”都不能随意,该有“计划”!妈仔谷为你制定“0-6岁母婴成长使用说明书”
Cadeia de Ma Zigu Peng Yunhui: Na vida de uma criança, não há "um passo" ao acaso, deve haver um "plano"! O Mazars Valley desenvolveu o "Manual do Proprietário para mães e filhos de 0 a 6 anos"
文 周君君

https://preview.redd.it/nzp4szxjpy451.jpg?width=3648&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=316e6fff974f58a648370cd8b1ecc2e1ec7c4185
如果你走入妈仔谷总部,你会看上墙上一幕幕彭爸爸的黑白照片。一个眼睛不大却自带喜感的男人用温柔充满着爱的眼神对婴儿每一个细节呵护的照片,有的是他在喂婴儿喝奶,有的是他为婴儿在按摩,有的是为婴儿在换尿片,有的是在跟婴儿说话,有的是哄婴儿睡觉,有的是给婴儿洗澡……每一幕,都让人感受到浓浓的父爱,深深的感动,深深的震撼。
Se você entrar na sede do Vale Ma Zi, verá a foto em preto e branco de Peng Peng na parede. Uma foto de um homem com olhos pequenos, mas com um sentimento de alegria que cuida de todos os detalhes do bebê com olhos gentis e amorosos, alguns estão alimentando o bebê para beber leite, outros estão massageando o bebê e outros estão trocando a fralda para o bebê. Alguns estão conversando com os bebês, outros estão convencendo os bebês a dormir e outros estão banhando os bebês ... Cada cena faz as pessoas sentirem o amor de um pai forte, profundamente comovido, profundamente chocado.
人生路不可随意,每一步都得用心地走,每种遇见都会在人生当中留下印记,无论遇见人,遇见事,遇见物件;据世界儿童心理学,行为学专家数据,一个人初生到这个世界时0-6岁,是感知能力最强的时候,他的一切“遇见”都会被他深刻的感知,然后雕刻在他潜意识深处,伴随他一生,影响他一生的每一次“抉择”。所以每个父母希望能用更正确的方法论,更专业的方法,更专业的“情绪”,去为孩子做更多“对”的事情,希望能让孩子“遇见”更多的美好。可是初为父母,几乎都是处于混沌状态。
O caminho da vida não pode ser aleatório. Cada passo deve ser tomado com cuidado. Todo encontro deixará uma marca na vida. Não importa quando você conhece pessoas, quando conhece coisas, quando conhece coisas; de acordo com dados de especialistas em psicologia e comportamento infantil no mundo, uma pessoa nasce aqui. O mundo tem de 0 a 6 anos. É o momento em que a capacidade de perceber é a mais forte. Todas as suas "reuniões" serão profundamente sentidas por ele e depois gravadas nas profundezas de sua mente subconsciente, que o acompanharão por toda a vida e afetarão todas as "escolhas" em sua vida. Portanto, todos os pais esperam usar metodologias mais corretas, métodos mais profissionais e "emoções" mais profissionais para fazer coisas mais "certas" para seus filhos, na esperança de fazê-los "encontrar-se" mais bonitos. Mas os primeiros pais estão quase em um estado de caos.
那时的彭云辉和妻子自然也处于混沌之列。十四年前,还是独生子女的时代,孩子的降生就是每个家庭最重要的事情和全部关注的中心。那年,彭云辉初为人父,那是种非常奇妙的体验。充满惊喜,感叹生命的神奇和伟大,同时,又诚惶诚恐,不知道该如何正确地去面对新生命的成长,总担心一个细节没做好给孩子带来创伤,造成悔恨。
Naquela época, Peng Yunhui e sua esposa estavam naturalmente no caos. Quatorze anos atrás, era a idade de ter apenas filhos.O nascimento de um filho é a coisa mais importante e o foco de todas as famílias. Naquele ano, Peng Yunhui era o pai e foi uma experiência muito maravilhosa. Cheia de surpresas, lamentando a magia e a grandeza da vida, ao mesmo tempo sincera e com medo, não sei como enfrentar corretamente o crescimento de uma nova vida, sempre preocupada que um detalhe que não seja bem feito traga trauma à criança e causará remorso.
女人刚生完孩子,作息时间完全被打乱,又对孩子的过分紧张,对环境的过于敏感,很容易产生一定的忧郁情绪,而哺乳期阶段情绪的忧郁或者波动却直接影响到母乳的质量和产量。而彭云辉妻子就属于这种类型,孩子不足两个月母乳已经不足以供应孩子的需求。吃什么奶粉,吃什么辅食就成了一家老小讨论研究的重要话题。彭云辉开始专心研习专业书籍,在网上收集经验,唯恐选择错误让新生孩子受到一点伤害。
Uma mulher acabou de dar à luz um filho, sua agenda é completamente interrompida, ela está excessivamente nervosa com o filho e é sensível demais ao ambiente. É fácil produzir uma certa quantidade de depressão. No entanto, a depressão ou flutuação do humor durante a lactação afeta diretamente a qualidade do leite materno. E rendimento. A esposa de Peng Yunhui pertence a esse tipo: o leite materno para crianças com menos de dois meses não é suficiente para atender às necessidades das crianças. Que leite em pó comer e que alimentos complementares se tornaram um tópico importante para os jovens discutirem e pesquisarem. Peng Yunhui começou a se concentrar no estudo de livros profissionais e na coleta de experiências na Internet, para que a escolha errada não prejudicasse um pouco o recém-nascido.
那一段日子,彭云辉夫妇感觉每天过的慌慌张张,像在打乱仗。面对孩子每一天的成长,父母不仅需要谨言慎行给他们最好的成长环境,同时还需要战战兢兢如履薄冰的挑选他的食物和用品。从吃,怎么吃,何时吃,吃什么。到用什么,如何用,用那种。好不容易能够把吃的用的折腾好,孩子脸上冒痘痘,生病发烧……全家又成了热锅上的蚂蚁,家中又开始演绎着兵荒马乱人心惶惶的大剧,去医院打针吃药又担心孩子摄入抗生素,不去医院,似乎网上的经验之谈许多也没有成效……
Naquela época, o casal Peng Yunhui sentia pânico todos os dias, como se estivesse travando uma guerra. Diante do crescimento dos filhos todos os dias, os pais não apenas precisam ter cuidado e proporcionar o melhor ambiente para o crescimento, mas também precisam escolher a comida e os suprimentos de uma maneira assustadora. De comer, como comer, quando comer e o que comer. Para o que usar, como usar, use isso. Afinal, eu era capaz de jogar a comida, o rosto da criança estava com acne e ele estava doente e febril ... toda a família se tornou uma formiga na panela quente novamente, e a família começou a realizar um drama terrivelmente perturbado por soldados e cavalos. Preocupado com as crianças que tomam antibióticos e não vão ao hospital, parece que muitas conversas sobre experiências on-line não são eficazes ...
彭云辉对自己的理解,认为自己最大的优点就是相信任何事只要通过用心的学习以及实践,多参考优秀的经验一定可以找到更正确的方法,以更正确的方法,制定更正确的计划去做好。
O entendimento de Peng Yunhui de si mesmo acredita que sua maior vantagem é que ele acredita que tudo pode ser encontrado através de cuidadoso estudo e prática, e referindo-se a uma excelente experiência. .
他开始满世界去求教母婴专家,阅读大量书籍,经常去向有优秀经验的人学习,功夫不负有心人。孩子未满周岁,他已经从一个‘无知’的混沌爸爸,成长为朋友圈中传说的‘母婴专家彭爸爸’。从孩子什么阶段选择什么奶粉,配以什么辅食,到如何安抚孩子入睡,到小儿推拿,到孩子简单的小毛病,过敏,头疼脑热,闹肚子,他都可以处理的游刃有余。朋友经常笑他说他是可以“制定婴幼儿成长全计划”的“彭博士,彭爸爸。”然而,朋友们自己成为父母时,又经常上门找“彭博士”讨教求助。后来发展成经常一群朋友抱着孩子围坐在“彭博士”家开“座谈会”,后来朋友的朋友也慢慢加入了这个“行列”。当孩子有个头疼脑热,吃喝拉撒异常,大家都已经默认先跑“彭博士”家。由于彭云辉原本就是佛系性格,温和而乐于助人,后来朋友圈都昵称他为“彭爸爸。”
Ele começou a procurar o conselho de especialistas em mães e bebês em todo o mundo, leu um grande número de livros e muitas vezes aprendeu com pessoas com excelente experiência. A criança tem menos de um ano de idade e cresceu de um pai caótico da ignorância para um lendário especialista em mães e bebês, Peng Peng, no círculo de amigos. Ele pode lidar com tudo, desde qual leite em pó a criança escolhe em qualquer estágio, qual alimento suplementar, como acalmar a criança para dormir, massagem infantil, pequenos problemas infantis simples, alergias, dores de cabeça, febre cerebral e problemas estomacais. Os amigos costumavam rir dele e diziam que ele era "Dr. Peng, pai Peng", que pode "fazer um plano completo para o crescimento de bebês e crianças pequenas". No entanto, quando os amigos se tornaram pais, muitas vezes procuravam o Dr. Peng para obter ajuda. Mais tarde, tornou-se um grupo de amigos segurando crianças em torno da casa do "Dr. Peng" para realizar um "simpósio" e, em seguida, amigos de amigos gradualmente se juntaram ao "posto". Quando a criança tem dor de cabeça e calor no cérebro, comer e beber Lhasa é anormal, todo mundo deixou de executar o "Dr. Peng" primeiro. Como Peng Yunhui era originalmente um personagem budista, ele foi gentil e prestativo.Mais tarde, seu círculo de amigos o apelidou de "Papa Peng".
那一年,彭云辉如平时一样一边吃着早餐一边读着报纸,一个醒目的标题吸引了他——产妇患抑郁抱着两个孩子跳楼。看完以后,他深深惊憾,久久不能平静,连续两天吃任何食物都味同嚼蜡,无法下咽。第二天,彭云辉和妻子商量,决定放弃奋斗十几年年营收超千万的贸易公司,开一家母婴店,他将从源头开始精选最好的吃用物品,同时,用他所学集合一些专家为初生父母们制定更专业的母婴全系统计划,以及母婴日常问题提供解决方案,他觉得这真是太重要了,他跟妻子讲起了昨天报纸上那骇人听闻的那則新闻,妻子听后唏嘘不已回想起自己曾经也患过轻微的产后抑郁,非常支持丈夫的选择,认为这确实是很有意义,能够帮助他人的事。
Naquele ano, Peng Yunhui estava tomando café da manhã e lendo o jornal como sempre, e uma manchete impressionante o atraiu - a mãe com depressão e segurando dois filhos pulando. Depois de assistir, sentiu-se profundamente arrependido por não conseguir se acalmar por um longo tempo, e comer qualquer comida por dois dias consecutivos com gosto de mascar cera e não conseguir engolir. No dia seguinte, Peng Yunhui discutiu com sua esposa e decidiu abrir mão de uma empresa comercial com uma receita anual de mais de 10 milhões de yuans e abrir uma loja para mães e bebês, que selecionará os melhores alimentos e suprimentos da fonte e, ao mesmo tempo, usará seu Aprenda a reunir alguns especialistas para formular um plano de sistema mãe-filho mais profissional para pais recém-nascidos e fornecer soluções para os problemas diários de mães e bebês.Ele acha que isso é realmente importante.Ele disse à esposa sobre as notícias apavorantes do jornal de ontem. Depois de ouvir isso, a esposa suspirou e lembrou-se de ter sofrido uma leve depressão pós-parto, apoiando muito a escolha do marido e achou que era realmente significativa e poderia ajudar os outros.
2005年彭云辉创立“妈仔谷”,字面意思是妈妈孩子在一个欢乐安全的世界里。“马仔谷”真正的寓意是,每一位马仔谷的服务顾问都能秉承大爱,幼吾幼以及人之幼,把天底下每个孩子都视如己出去爱和呵护,为宝爸宝妈提供科学育儿系统解决方案并帮助每个家庭把母婴养成计划落实到每一天的生活中去,让每个父母都能成为“母婴专家。”
Em 2005, Peng Yunhui fundou o "Vale Mãe", que literalmente significa que mãe e filho estão em um mundo feliz e seguro. A verdadeira implicação do "Mazi Valley" é que todo consultor de serviços do Ma Zi Valley pode defender grande amor, jovens e jovens, e tratar todas as crianças do mundo como se não estivessem por amor e carinho. Pais e mães fornecem soluções científicas para o sistema parental e ajudam cada família a implementar planos de desenvolvimento de mãe para filho em suas vidas diárias, para que cada pai possa se tornar um "especialista em mães e filhos".
而今妈仔谷已经成为母婴衣,食,住,行,用,教,乐,按摩,咨询,心理辅导等全方位一站式服务的互动机构,成为中国专业制定母婴计划的领先品牌。连锁店超过数百家,专业母婴顾问超过2000人,影响亿万家庭,成为亿万家庭信赖的知名品牌。
Hoje, a Ma Zai Gu se tornou uma agência interativa abrangente e abrangente para roupas de mãe e bebê, comida, moradia, viagens, uso, ensino, música, massagem, aconselhamento, aconselhamento psicológico, etc., e tornou-se a marca líder da China na formulação profissional de planos para mães e bebês. Existem mais de centenas de cadeias de lojas e mais de 2.000 consultores profissionais de mães e bebês, afetando centenas de milhões de famílias e tornando-se marcas bem conhecidas, confiadas por centenas de milhões de famílias.
彭云辉说:“我一直非常非常爱孩子,我非常爱孩子的笑,那是世界上最纯净的笑容,我们该感恩与孩子的“相遇”,我们该珍惜善待与孩子相处的每个时刻,我们得设法尽可能让他感知到这个世界很多很多的美好,遇见这个世界很多很多的爱,这就是妈仔谷存在的意义。”孩子诞生,我们不再恐慌,混沌,我们一起牵手去妈仔谷吧!
Peng Yunhui disse: "Eu sempre amo muito crianças. Amo muito o sorriso das crianças. Esse é o sorriso mais puro do mundo. Devemos ser gratos pelo" encontro "com crianças. Devemos valorizar cada momento que temos com crianças. Você tem que tentar fazê-lo sentir o máximo possível neste mundo, e conhecer muitos, muitos amores neste mundo, que é o significado da existência de Ma Zai Gu. "O nascimento de um filho, não mais entramos em pânico, caos, vamos para Ma Zai Gu Certo!
盘湘文化 周君君
submitted by Lost-Morning to u/Lost-Morning [link] [comments]


2020.06.07 00:00 hallach_halil Biggest remaining needs for each team in the NFC

The big free agency period and draft are now in the books, so we have reached what I like to call the “dark hole” of the offseason. You don’t have a lot of trades or signings going on and the biggest news are about teams changing their uniforms. However, what this part of the year allows me to do, is watch the film of some players I wasn’t really able to during the regular season and evaluate how teams are built.
I looked through the rosters of all 32 NFL organizations and tried to pin-point the one spot they could still use an upgrade at. That can be a very specific fit for their scheme, a true impact starter, depth at a certain position group or whatever. I tried to go through some of the areas of improvement I looked at, how they might have addressed some of them already and how I got to the conclusion of what their biggest need is.
I will put out my AFC version of this next week.

NFC North:


Chicago Bears – Strong safety

There are certainly question marks about Chicago’s offense, starting with the battle for the starting quarterback gig, but if the Bears are going to be in the mix for this division, they will have to dominate on defense once again. Looking at this unit last year, the D-line was hurting with Akiem Hicks out, but even when Roquan Smith missed time, Nick Kwiatkowski filled in nicely (earning himself a pretty good contract with the Raiders) and while they did lose Prince Amukara in free agency, I think 50th overall draft pick Jaylon Johnson is ready to step in and contribute right away. The one spot I still have questions about is strong safety. Chicago lost Adrian Amos last offseason and took a step back with Haha Clinton-Dix. They might be getting worse again. It just looked like a battle between Deon Bush, Jordan Lucas and maybe Kentrell Brice to pair up with Eddie Jackson. The Bears did sign Tashaun Gipson a good two weeks ago after the Texans let him go, but he will turn 30 in August and probably played the worst season of his career in 2019. While he did make 11 plays on the ball, his play in deep coverage was rather questionable and he missed 15 percent of his tackling attempts. Eddie Jackson is one of the elite safeties in the league and has the instincts and range to play single-high more, but as it stands, the Bears do want to run quite a few two-high safety looks and then be able to rotate them in kind of an interchangeable fashion. I’m not sure if you can expect that from Gipson, since he biggest issue come to daylight when he is put in space with great athletes, That’s one of the reason I was so annoyed with the Bears selecting Notre Dame tight-end Cole Kmet with their second-round pick in the draft, when Minnesota’s Antoine Winfield Jr. was on the board and would have been a perfect match here.

Detroit Lions – Punter

For a team that just had the third pick in the draft, the Lions have a pretty complete roster in my opinion. You can look at the guard position, since they did lose Graham Glasgow in free agency and Joe Dahl was sub-par in his only season as a starter, but I expect their third- and fourth-round picks in Jonah Jackson and Logan Stenberg to earn the two starting guard spots. Edge rusher has been a big need for them in recent years ever since Ziggy Ansah first got banged up, but they did invest heavily in Trey Flowers from New England last offseason and I think Julian Okwara could be an impactful edge player if they get him to play more consistently. And they now one of the better trios of corners when healthy. Instead I am looking at a specialist for them – more specifically the punter. Detroit lost Sam Martin to the Broncos in free agency, who paid the 30-year old just outside the top in average salary among the position. Now the Lions go into camp with a battle between Jack Fox, who was an undrafted free agent last year, and Arryn Sippos, who they pay over two million dollars a year coming over from the Australian Football League in 2018 and then averaging 44.0 yards per punt for Auburn over these last two seasons, When you look at the Lions’ draft, they want to play ball-control and win with their defense. They selected Georgia running back D’Andre Swift 35th overall to form a dynamic duo with the often-banged up Kerryon Johnson, whose touches they want to limit. You can question Matt Patricia paying everybody the Patriots can’t afford, but with Jamie Collins, Duron Harmon and others I see what he wants to build on defense. If that is the way you want to play, you need to be able to flip the field consistently and I just don’t know what to think of their punter situation.

Green Bay Packers – Z receiver

The Packers are coming off a 13-3 campaign and a trip to the NFC Championship. While they did get hammered in San Francisco and the win total was kind of fluky with an 8-1 record in one-score games, this team was in situation where it needed to add those couple of pieces to remain a contender. The defense finished top ten in points allowed for the first time since their Super Bowl season in 2010 and Aaron Jones was their first 1000-yard rushers since Eddie Lacy in 2014. Green Bay had the 30th overall pick in the draft and everybody had them going wide receiver at that stop, but instead they drafted Aaron Rodgers’ future replacement in Utah State’s Jordan Love. You can argue with me about how Rodgers’ play has fallen off recently and I don’t hate the range the rookie QB was selected in, but for them to actually use a fourth-round pick to trade up four spots and take him there, when you just extended your current franchise player for another four years, 134 million can certainly be questioned. Even worse – they didn’t select a single receiver among an all-time great class. The Packers have to hope for Rick Wagner to get to back form and replace Bryan Bulaga at right tackle and I also considered interior defensive line after the 49ers just steamrolled them in the NFC Championship game, but I still hold out hope for some of those young guys they have on their roster. Instead I come back to the receiver position and in particular, I am looking for a speed receiver, who can stretch the field and create space underneath on post and go-routes. Davante Adams is a bonafide stud, but nobody else has been able to establish themselves as the number two, while Allen Lazard and Equanimeous St. Brown would definitely benefit from more space being created. The one guy who has it all, but simply hasn’t been able to put it all together is Marquez Valdes-Scantling.

Minnesota Vikings – Outside receiver

The Vikings did lose quite a few pieces this offseason with Everson Griffen, Linval Joseph, their two starting corners and trading away Stefon Diggs, but they also just made the most selections in the draft ever (15) and have a lot of competition across the board now. Defensively they now have a lot of young corners they are looking for to develop and by bringing back Anthony Harris on the franchise tag, they still have one of the premiere safety tandems in the league. The D-line is a bit of a question mark with Griffen and Joseph out of the building. Ifeadi Odenigbo came on late in the season and Minnesota just signed Michael Pierce to a three-year deal, who might actually be an upgrade over Joseph at shade nose. Shemar Stephen played just over half the snaps last season and they other guys they have some other promising young players in Jaleel Johnson and Armon Watts, who have been learning behind those other guys. They also brought in some guys late on day three in the draft. So the bigger need at 3-tech would be for one of those candidates to emerge. I trust Mike Zimmer to fit those pieces together and look back at the offensive side of the ball. The Vikes are plugging 22nd overall pick Justin Jefferson from LSU in for Stefon Diggs, even if I think he did almost all of his damage from the slot. Contrary to popular belief, Adam Thielen actually lines up out wide more than in the slot, but what I like about these two guys is the fact they are kind of interchangeable. With the amount of 12 and 21 personnel they run, Minnesota only needs two receivers out there for about half the snaps, but I just believe they could use someone else who can play on the outside, since the depth chart behind them doesn’t blow anybody away and all those guys are better suited for an inside role as well.


NFC East:


Dallas Cowboys – Strong safety

Man, looking at this roster, this team is just so damn talented. The whole contract drama with Dak Prescott is certainly hanging over them like a dark cloud and the players still have to actually put it to the field, but they have all the pieces to compete for the NFC in theory. Offensively, they are still kind of re-grouping up front after the retirement of Travis Frederick, but they have added a lot of quality pieces in draft these last couple of year. Dallas is expecting Blake Jarwin to take a big step in his first season as a full-time starter, to go with a tremendous of trio of receivers, as they might run more 11 personnel than any other team in the league. While a large portion of their offensive production was empty calories and they did shrink in some big games, to me the defense is where they really need to improve. Their interior D-line rotation is outstanding and as long as they find someone outside of DeMarcus Lawrence who can stay focused, their pass-rush could be vicious. Depending on how Leighton Vander Esch has recovered from that neck surgery, they could once again have guys who can fly around on the second level. The loss of their top corner in Byron Jones definitely hurts, but their draft picks Trevon Diggs and Reggie Robinson II certainly have all the talent to play there, to go with a big group of quality slot defenders. Instead I’m going back to the safety position. The coaches seem to love Xavier Woods at free safety, but I don’t think who they want to pair him up with long-term. Haha Clinton-Dix is an adequate starter, but he is really better suited in deep coverage and there is a reason he has been on three teams over the last two season, while being on a one-year deal with Dallas right now. With new DC Mike Nolan, the defense will not be as simplistic with single-high coverages, but you still a safety who can play closer to the line of scrimmage.

New York Giants – Edge rusher

The Giants went into this offseason with two major areas of improvement – protecting their young quarterback and getting after opposing ones. They finished bottom five in sacks and QB hits allowed, while nobody on the roster – since Marcus Golden wasn’t resigned (yet) – logged five sacks or more last season. Well, the Giants drafted Georgia offensive tackle Andrew Thomas fourth overall, selected another developmental tackle in Matt Peart (UConn) in the third round and one of my favorite guards in Shane Lemieux (Oregon) in the fourth. Big Blue did draft Oshane Ximines and Lorenzo Carter last year and they selected four linebackers in late April, with two of them having outside flexibility, but they lost their leading sacker in Golden and they just don’t have that true dog up coming off the edge. I like the signing of Kyler Fackrell, who should take over at SAM with a healthy competition for that second spot on the outside, but who will come around the corner and put the heat on opposing quarterbacks consistently? Leonard Williams – who they acquired via trade mid-season and have put the franchise tag on – has some edge flexibility, but I just see a run-plugging beefy D-line that might not be able to get home with their pass-rush. I liked B.J. Hill coming out of N.C. State a couple of years ago with his ability to beat guards, one of their 2019 first-rounders Dexter Lawrence can definitely create push up the middle and Dalvin Tomlinson is excellent at setting up stunts and twists, to create opportunities for his teammates. However, when you look at all those great offensive tackles in the NFC East, I’m just not sure who the G-Men have to seriously threaten off the edge consistently. If they can bring back Golden or sign one of those other veterans out on the market, I would certainly feel better about them. Also because it would help a young room of guys at that position.

Philadelphia Eagles – SAM linebacker

I had the Eagles as NFC favorites coming into 2019, but after DeSean Jackson went down following a monster week one performance, that entire receiver room was split into pieces and they were desperate for speed. That’s why they selected TCU’s Jalen Reagor in the first round, traded for Marquise Goodwin and drafted Boise State’s John Hightower on day three. With those guys added to the best tight-end duo in the league, a breakout back like Miles Sanders going into year two and a strong O-line to support Carson Wentz, I really like this offense. Defensively, they traded for Darius Slay, who was a top ten corner for a long stretch until he was a little banged up last season and they signed Javon Hargreave to add to the interior D-line. However, that whole linebacker corp may not be a strength for them next season. I like T.J. Edwards as a thumping MIKE and Duke Riley when healthy and kept clean can make some plays from the weak-side, but then at SAM I certainly have question marks. Right now it looks like Nathan Gerry and Jatavis Brown could compete for that spot, but depending on how they want to use that position, I don’t see them putting either one over the tight-end to control the point of attack. The Eagles drafted Colorado’s Davion Taylor in third round, who I had as about my 20th-ranked linebacker. He was basically a big nickel in college and certainly is the kind of explosive athlete who can make some splash plays, but he was never really tagged with box duties and weighed in at under 230 pounds at the combine. Their fourth-rounder K’Von Wallace from Clemson is a natural fit in the slot, but Philly also lost Malcolm Jenkins in free agency. NFL teams play with 5+ DBs on the field over 70 percent of the snaps on average, but against heavy personnel this group of backers could be exposed, and the two LBs they would keep on the field on sub haven’t been true difference-makers in the league.

Washington Redskins – Slot receiver

There are some things Ron Rivera still has to figure out about this Washington defense, depending on the status of Reuben Foster at linebacker and how he wants to assemble the secondary, but with a defensive line that now has Chase Young, Jonathan Allen, Da’Ron Payne, Montez Sweat and others, they are going to wreak some havoc. For this team it is really more about the offense and in particular what Dwayne Haskins can do in year two. His support system wasn’t great in 2019, with Adrian Peterson being their top back and their most productive receiver being third-round pick Terry McLaurin, who Haskins had just been throwing passes to at Ohio State and had an excellent rookie campaign considering the erratic QB play. While Trent Williams is now finally off the team, this year’s third-rounder Saahdiq Charles should at least be an upgrade over what they had last season and I like some of other guys they added. I would have definitely said tight-end here, but to get Thaddeus Moss as an undrafted free agent, who may not be the most dynamic pass-catcher, but is very reliable pass-catcher and an excellent in-line blocker, could fix that issue. Instead I’m looking more towards the receivers. I had last year’s sixth-rounder Kelvin Harmon ranked over guys like Patriots first-round pick N’Keal Harry and the Colts’ second-rounder Parris Campbell and then Washington got another one of my favorites this time around with Liberty’s Antonio Gandy-Golden in the fourth round. What do all three of those guys have in common? – They did most of their damage on the outside in college. McLaurin has played some in the slot and could move inside on 11 personnel sets, but their best true slot receiver is Trey Quinn, who didn’t even crack the 200-yard mark last season and caught just one TD. I certainly believe they could use an upgrade there, in the mold of what Haskins had in his one year as a starter in college with the aforementioned Campbell, to get involved on jet sweeps, shallow crossers and other easy yardage plays.


NFC South:


Atlanta Falcons – WILL linebacker

The Falcons defense was a mess last season, with a mixture of bad play and miscommunication. With all the investments they made on the offensive line a year ago, they could completely focus on the defensive side of the ball. I first thought about edge rusher for Atlanta, because they lost Vic Beasley, who might have never lived up to his draft status outside of one abnormal 15.5-sack campaign, but was still a high-upside pass rusher when allowed to just go. However, I think Dante Fowler will be an upgrade and their first-rounder from 2017 in Takk McKinley has shown flashes. I certainly have questions about they interior, where I thought they would actually go if they found a partner to trade up with in the draft. Grady Jarrett is one of the best 3-techs in the league, but he has barely had help around him and actually had to line up in the A-gaps more than he would like to. The Falcons selected Auburn’s Marlon Davidson early on day two of the draft, who I think best fits shading the outside shoulder of guards as well, so maybe they plan on moving Jarrett inside even more. Davidson played a hybrid outside backer in college, so he could play some heavy end as well and then you possibly have Fowler at SAM with more Over looks. The other options on the inside are a run-stopping Tyler Davidson and Deadrin Senat, who has some potential. I think a more proven 1-tech would have been a good addition, but instead I’m focusing more on the second level of the defense. Deion Jones is a super-rangy MIKE, who can cover shifty backs one-on-one as well, but Atlanta lost his partner in crime in De’Vondre Campbell. They brought in Fresno State’s Mykal Walker early on day three of the draft, who lined up a lot on the edge in college and could potentially start on the strong-side for them, but they still need a WILL, who can take away cutback lanes in the run game and punish single receivers for catching simple slant routes.

Carolina Panthers – Right guard

You could maybe nit-pick at a spot or two on defense for the Panthers, but when you spend all seven of your draft picks on that side of the ball, you can’t really complain and we really still have to see how they put all those pieces together. Instead I’m looking at the offensive line, where they just traded away Pro Bowl guard Trai Turner for a fragile tackle in Russell Okung from the Chargers. I would strongly guess that this was more due to cap purposes, but after losing Andrew Norwell in free agency last year already – who in fairness has been a disappointment in Jacksonville so far – that group has gone from a strength to more of a concern. I could see Okung move inside in order to let their talented second-round pick from 2019 in Greg Little develop, but he looked pretty lost out there as a rookie. John Miller who projects to be the starter at left guard had a solid start to his career with Buffalo, but took a step back with a lackluster Bengals O-line last season and Dennis Daley is really more of a natural fit on the edge. With what they have on their roster right now, flipping Okung to the right side and moving Taylor Moton one spot to the inside, with Little being thrown in the fire again, would probably put their best five out on the field, but I think they would be best suited to add another interior O-lineman to at least add some competition. New QB Teddy Bridgewater finished dead-last among starting QBs in intended air yards last season. I still have to see how that meshes with those vertical targets the Panthers have in D.J. Moore, Robby Anderson and to some degree Curtis Samuel, who I personally believe Joe Brady will use more on slants and crossers underneath – his version of Justin Jefferson so to speak.

New Orleans Saints – Speed receiver

When I looked at this Saints roster in preparation for my 2020 mock draft, it was tough to find a true hole on the depth chart. The one position I thought they could address was MIKE linebacker, since their only LB on their roster with at least 30 percent of the snaps outside of Demario Davis is now gone, and I thought Patrick Queen would be a good fit in this pass-heavy division. Instead they went with my top-rated interior O-lineman in Cesar Ruiz before letting Larry Warford go, which is a little bit of a head-scratcher simply because they only got cheaper – not necessarily better. Still, I think third-rounder Zack Baun (Wisconsin) will start at SAM and I love their undrafted free agent Joe Bachie (Michigan State), who I believe could start at MIKE for them as a rookie and then be subbed off more on third downs possibly. Therefore I went back to the receiver position, which I thought was their biggest area of improvement before bringing in Emmanuel Sanders in free agency. Drew Brees may no longer throw the deep ball very effectively or want to at all, but you still need to somehow stretch the field and clear space. Michael Thomas broke the single season reception record because he is a physical possession-type receiver, who they heavily target on slants and crossing routes. Sanders once was a true deep threat, but he is now 33 years old and wins more with crafty route-running (even though he had a step on the defense for a potential game-winner in this past Super Bowl). So with Drew you may not be able to fully utilize that deep threat, but having somebody who can use that speed horizontally on crossers and just to open up room underneath would help the other pass-catchers there a lot. Tre’Quan Smith has that long speed, but he hasn’t developed the way I thought he could.

Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Offensive line depth

No team in the league has shifted expectations more than these Bucs. It is not only about Tom Brady being brought in, but also Gronk coming out of retirement and some nice additions in the draft. When you look at their defense finishing 29th in the NFL in terms of points allowed, you certainly want to improve on that, but they quietly were the number one run-stopping unit in the league and they bring everybody back in their second season under Todd Bowles. They have all the players to take the next step, plus another chess piece in Minnesota Antoine Winfield Jr. as Bowles’ version of the Honeybadger, and they won’t be put in so many tough spots off turnovers by their offense, where the opposing team is in scoring range right away or these guys are just tired out. Their group of skill-position players on offense is up there with the best, so it’s really about protecting Brady. Now with Tristan Wirfs being drafted 13th overall to add to the mix, this starting five looks pretty strong. It will be between their 2018 third-rounder Alex Cappa and veteran Joe Haeg as well as about how much Wirfs can clean up his footwork in pass-protection – in a heavily shortened offseason program at the very least – who will be that second starter on the right side at guard or tackle. Either way, Tampa Bay should have one solid backup but I don’t know who they plan on being their seventh guy on gameday and I don’t believe a lot of people have even heard the names Brad Seaton, Zack Bailey or Aaron Stinnie before. I’m still very interested to see how much of a hybrid between Bruce Arians’ vertical passing offense and New England’s Erhardt-Perkins system – which allowed Brady to spread the defense out and create mismatches – this will be. No matter what, protecting the 43-year old legend is priority number one and you can’t be one injury away from having a liablity on the O-line potentially.


NFC West:


Arizona Cardinals – Secondary depth

The Cardinals went into the offseason with two major needs to make this Kliff Kingsbury offense work – a true number one receiver and a starting right tackle. A good month before the draft, it looked like they would have to decide on either one of the two with their eight overall pick. Instead they were able to package a bad contract of David Johnson and a second-round pick for superstar DeAndre Hopkins and I believe they found their starting tackle in the third round with Joshua Jones, who I had graded as a late first-rounder, which allowed them to select Clemson do-it-all defender Isaiah Simmons with that top ten pick. That’s about as good they could have hoped for and with beef added to the D-line on day three to compete in a run-heavy division, they can now address the 31st-ranked pass defense. I’m not totally sure about how they will utilize their corners. Patrick Peterson looked a little slow and old last season, but he should be a fixture for them. Last year’s second-round pick Byron Murphy out of Washington had some growing pains early on, but he was my CB1 in the draft and definitely showed fight as well as improvement throughout the season. The Cardinals also brought in veteran Robert Alford, so I could see them moving Murphy more into the slot. I’ve always loved Budda Baker as a little lighter version of Tyrann Mathieu and I still believe in one of their day three selection in last year’s draft in Deionte Thompson from Alabama, who only fell due to injury concerns, but has the range and feel to excel in a free safety role, if he can clean up his tackling a little bit. It will be interesting to see how exactly the Cards will utilize Simmons and another versatile first-round linebacker from in 2018 in Haason Reddick, but when it comes to true defensive backs, right now they probably rely on Jalen Thompson and the third-most popular Chris Jones in the NFL as their first backups in the secondary. That leaves something to be desired.

Los Angeles Rams – Edge rusher

To be honest, I’m a little concerned about these Rams. Acquiring Jalen Ramsey for two first-round picks is worth it for me, considering he could be the premiere corner in football for the next five years or so, and I like the players they selected in the draft in a vacuum, but since the regular season concluded, I’m not sure they got better at one single position. I think the combination of Darrell Henderson and second-rounder Cam Akers (Florida State) will be more effective than what they had in a banged up Todd Gurley and Florida’s Van Jefferson is an exquisite route-runner, who can produce right away – unlike Brandin Cooks, who simply hasn’t really been available. However, they lost a rangy linebacker in Corey Littleton and their top edge rusher in Dante Fowler through free agency, while not doing anything to improve the O-line. To replace Fowler, they brought in Leonard Floyd, who is a good Robin, but they don’t have a real Batman coming off the edge. In the third round of the draft they selected Terrell Lewis, who had top 50 talent, but he only had one full season with Alabama and I’m not sure if you can expect him to play all 16 games as a pro in 2020. Samson Ebukam has given the team some production and I liked their fifth-rounder out Oklahoma from a year ago in Ogbonnia Okoronkwo, but those guys might be more rotational pass-rushers. Maybe they hope for Jachai Polite to get his act together, but when you consider the Jets let him go early on after spending a day two pick of him and needing somebody on the edge desperately themselves, that is more of a shot in the dark. Obviously you have an elite player on the interior in Aaron Donald and he makes a lot of issues disappear, but nobody has really established himself on the edge for L.A. I also don’t know if Lirim Hajrullahu, who I had never heard before, can replace Greg Zuerlein at kicker.

San Francisco 49ers – Cornerback

Coming off a devastating Super Bowl loss, I believe the 49ers have done a really solid job retooling their roster. Trading away a team MVP in DeForest Buckner obviously hurts, but replacing him with a similar type of player with sky-high potential in Javon Kinlaw from South Carolina with that pick you just acquired and you pay him less than a fifth of the price, makes that much easier to swallow. Their other first-rounder Brandon Aiyuk (Arizona State) gives them any YAC weapon in place of Emmanuel Sanders and they basically got All-Pro left tackle Trent Williams for peanuts, with the retirement of Joe Staley pending. I’m not worried about the offense with Kyle Shanahan calling the shots, as long as Jimmy G can shake that fourth quarter of the Super Bowl. Their defense was elite already last season, but that doesn’t mean they can’t still improve, especially when you looking at their secondary situation. Richard Sherman, K’Waun Williams and Ahkello Witherspoon will all become free agents in 2021. Witherspoon is still so up-and-down with lackluster technique. I like Emmanuel Moseley as that second guy on the outside and Jason Verrett still is an X-factor here, because he was one of the rising stars early on in San Diego, but I feel like I haven’t seen him play in like five years. D.J. Reed is a really nice backup nickel and Dontae Johnson was a solid player for them in his first stint with San Francisco, but he has barely seen the field these last three years. As part as covering the slot goes, whether it’s putting Jaquiski Tartt down against bigger bodies in base sets, keeping K’Waun Williams at nickel and even a guy like Reed coming in off the bench, are all viable options, but in terms of true outside corners, you are looking at a 32-year old Richard Sherman and a battle of what are more backups on most rosters. The Niners are set for a while at several positions, but cornerback isn’t one of them.

Seattle Seahawks – Right tackle

I don’t understand how some people still think of the Seahawks as some kind of dominant defense. They finished last season 26th in the league in yards allowed and they gave up 20+ points in all but two games. I think they have issues at corner (depending on the status of recently acquired Quinton Dunbar) and without Jadeveon Clowney their pass-rush is underwhelming, with Bobby Wagner being the only elite player on that unit. However, they did go defense-heavy in the draft and I wouldn’t say they don’t have the bodies to compete, so I’m going back to the continual problem child. The Seahawks have ignored issues on the offensive line for years now and once again this time around I mocked a tackle to them in the first round. Instead they went with a surprise pick – as they always do – in Texas Tech linebacker Jordyn Brooks. They did select LSU guard Damien Lewis early in the third, but he was not nearly my top guy available at that point. They also cut long-time center Justin Britt and the powerful D.J. Fluker who has guard/tackle flexibility. So I certainly don’t believe they got better up front. B.J. Finney looks to slide in at center and in this offense without a ton of true drop-back passes Lewis at least competes for a starting guard spot, but Cedric Ogbuehi is still not the solution at right tackle. The Hawks went from one of the biggest liabilities at that spot in Germain Ifedi to a maybe even bigger one in Ogbuehi. In his two seasons as a starter in Cincinnati, the new acquired tackle was responsible for 14.5 sacks. These last two years he hasn’t been in the starting lineup and now faces the likes of Chandler Jones, Nick Bosa and others in the NFC West. That is a recipe for disaster. Maybe Seattle moves Ethan Pocic to right tackle if two other guys impress at those guard spots.


If you enjoyed this content, I would really appreciate if you could visit the original piece - https://halilsrealfootballtalk.com/2020/05/19/biggest-remaining-needs-for-each-team-in-the-nfc-for-2020/

You can also listen to my breakdown on Youtube - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbcmXpqxxqI
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2020.06.03 23:48 hallach_halil Biggest remaining needs for each team in the NFC

The big free agency period and draft are now in the books, so we have reached what I like to call the “dark hole” of the offseason. You don’t have a lot of trades or signings going on and the biggest news are about teams changing their uniforms. However, what this part of the year allows me to do, is watch the film of some players I wasn’t really able to during the regular season and evaluate how teams are built.
I looked through the rosters of all 32 NFL organizations and tried to pin-point the one spot they could still use an upgrade at. That can be a very specific fit for their scheme, a true impact starter, depth at a certain position group or whatever. I tried to go through some of the areas of improvement I looked at, how they might have addressed some of them already and how I got to the conclusion of what their biggest need is.
You can also listen to my breakdown on Youtube and I will put out my AFC version of this next week.

NFC North:


Chicago Bears – Strong safety

There are certainly question marks about Chicago’s offense, starting with the battle for the starting quarterback gig, but if the Bears are going to be in the mix for this division, they will have to dominate on defense once again. Looking at this unit last year, the D-line was hurting with Akiem Hicks out, but even when Roquan Smith missed time, Nick Kwiatkowski filled in nicely (earning himself a pretty good contract with the Raiders) and while they did lose Prince Amukara in free agency, I think 50th overall draft pick Jaylon Johnson is ready to step in and contribute right away. The one spot I still have questions about is strong safety. Chicago lost Adrian Amos last offseason and took a step back with Haha Clinton-Dix. They might be getting worse again. It just looked like a battle between Deon Bush, Jordan Lucas and maybe Kentrell Brice to pair up with Eddie Jackson. The Bears did sign Tashaun Gipson a good two weeks ago after the Texans let him go, but he will turn 30 in August and probably played the worst season of his career in 2019. While he did make 11 plays on the ball, his play in deep coverage was rather questionable and he missed 15 percent of his tackling attempts. Eddie Jackson is one of the elite safeties in the league and has the instincts and range to play single-high more, but as it stands, the Bears do want to run quite a few two-high safety looks and then be able to rotate them in kind of an interchangeable fashion. I’m not sure if you can expect that from Gipson, since he biggest issue come to daylight when he is put in space with great athletes, That’s one of the reason I was so annoyed with the Bears selecting Notre Dame tight-end Cole Kmet with their second-round pick in the draft, when Minnesota’s Antoine Winfield Jr. was on the board and would have been a perfect match here.

Detroit Lions – Punter

For a team that just had the third pick in the draft, the Lions have a pretty complete roster in my opinion. You can look at the guard position, since they did lose Graham Glasgow in free agency and Joe Dahl was sub-par in his only season as a starter, but I expect their third- and fourth-round picks in Jonah Jackson and Logan Stenberg to earn the two starting guard spots. Edge rusher has been a big need for them in recent years ever since Ziggy Ansah first got banged up, but they did invest heavily in Trey Flowers from New England last offseason and I think Julian Okwara could be an impactful edge player if they get him to play more consistently. And they now one of the better trios of corners when healthy. Instead I am looking at a specialist for them – more specifically the punter. Detroit lost Sam Martin to the Broncos in free agency, who paid the 30-year old just outside the top in average salary among the position. Now the Lions go into camp with a battle between Jack Fox, who was an undrafted free agent last year, and Arryn Sippos, who they pay over two million dollars a year coming over from the Australian Football League in 2018 and then averaging 44.0 yards per punt for Auburn over these last two seasons, When you look at the Lions’ draft, they want to play ball-control and win with their defense. They selected Georgia running back D’Andre Swift 35th overall to form a dynamic duo with the often-banged up Kerryon Johnson, whose touches they want to limit. You can question Matt Patricia paying everybody the Patriots can’t afford, but with Jamie Collins, Duron Harmon and others I see what he wants to build on defense. If that is the way you want to play, you need to be able to flip the field consistently and I just don’t know what to think of their punter situation.

Green Bay Packers – Z receiver

The Packers are coming off a 13-3 campaign and a trip to the NFC Championship. While they did get hammered in San Francisco and the win total was kind of fluky with an 8-1 record in one-score games, this team was in situation where it needed to add those couple of pieces to remain a contender. The defense finished top ten in points allowed for the first time since their Super Bowl season in 2010 and Aaron Jones was their first 1000-yard rushers since Eddie Lacy in 2014. Green Bay had the 30th overall pick in the draft and everybody had them going wide receiver at that stop, but instead they drafted Aaron Rodgers’ future replacement in Utah State’s Jordan Love. You can argue with me about how Rodgers’ play has fallen off recently and I don’t hate the range the rookie QB was selected in, but for them to actually use a fourth-round pick to trade up four spots and take him there, when you just extended your current franchise player for another four years, 134 million can certainly be questioned. Even worse – they didn’t select a single receiver among an all-time great class. The Packers have to hope for Rick Wagner to get to back form and replace Bryan Bulaga at right tackle and I also considered interior defensive line after the 49ers just steamrolled them in the NFC Championship game, but I still hold out hope for some of those young guys they have on their roster. Instead I come back to the receiver position and in particular, I am looking for a speed receiver, who can stretch the field and create space underneath on post and go-routes. Davante Adams is a bonafide stud, but nobody else has been able to establish themselves as the number two, while Allen Lazard and Equanimeous St. Brown would definitely benefit from more space being created. The one guy who has it all, but simply hasn’t been able to put it all together is Marquez Valdes-Scantling.

Minnesota Vikings – Outside receiver

The Vikings did lose quite a few pieces this offseason with Everson Griffen, Linval Joseph, their two starting corners and trading away Stefon Diggs, but they also just made the most selections in the draft ever (15) and have a lot of competition across the board now. Defensively they now have a lot of young corners they are looking for to develop and by bringing back Anthony Harris on the franchise tag, they still have one of the premiere safety tandems in the league. The D-line is a bit of a question mark with Griffen and Joseph out of the building. Ifeadi Odenigbo came on late in the season and Minnesota just signed Michael Pierce to a three-year deal, who might actually be an upgrade over Joseph at shade nose. Shemar Stephen played just over half the snaps last season and they other guys they have some other promising young players in Jaleel Johnson and Armon Watts, who have been learning behind those other guys. They also brought in some guys late on day three in the draft. So the bigger need at 3-tech would be for one of those candidates to emerge. I trust Mike Zimmer to fit those pieces together and look back at the offensive side of the ball. The Vikes are plugging 22nd overall pick Justin Jefferson from LSU in for Stefon Diggs, even if I think he did almost all of his damage from the slot. Contrary to popular belief, Adam Thielen actually lines up out wide more than in the slot, but what I like about these two guys is the fact they are kind of interchangeable. With the amount of 12 and 21 personnel they run, Minnesota only needs two receivers out there for about half the snaps, but I just believe they could use someone else who can play on the outside, since the depth chart behind them doesn’t blow anybody away and all those guys are better suited for an inside role as well.


NFC East:


Dallas Cowboys – Strong safety

Man, looking at this roster, this team is just so damn talented. The whole contract drama with Dak Prescott is certainly hanging over them like a dark cloud and the players still have to actually put it to the field, but they have all the pieces to compete for the NFC in theory. Offensively, they are still kind of re-grouping up front after the retirement of Travis Frederick, but they have added a lot of quality pieces in draft these last couple of year. Dallas is expecting Blake Jarwin to take a big step in his first season as a full-time starter, to go with a tremendous of trio of receivers, as they might run more 11 personnel than any other team in the league. While a large portion of their offensive production was empty calories and they did shrink in some big games, to me the defense is where they really need to improve. Their interior D-line rotation is outstanding and as long as they find someone outside of DeMarcus Lawrence who can stay focused, their pass-rush could be vicious. Depending on how Leighton Vander Esch has recovered from that neck surgery, they could once again have guys who can fly around on the second level. The loss of their top corner in Byron Jones definitely hurts, but their draft picks Trevon Diggs and Reggie Robinson II certainly have all the talent to play there, to go with a big group of quality slot defenders. Instead I’m going back to the safety position. The coaches seem to love Xavier Woods at free safety, but I don’t think who they want to pair him up with long-term. Haha Clinton-Dix is an adequate starter, but he is really better suited in deep coverage and there is a reason he has been on three teams over the last two season, while being on a one-year deal with Dallas right now. With new DC Mike Nolan, the defense will not be as simplistic with single-high coverages, but you still a safety who can play closer to the line of scrimmage.

New York Giants – Edge rusher

The Giants went into this offseason with two major areas of improvement – protecting their young quarterback and getting after opposing ones. They finished bottom five in sacks and QB hits allowed, while nobody on the roster – since Marcus Golden wasn’t resigned (yet) – logged five sacks or more last season. Well, the Giants drafted Georgia offensive tackle Andrew Thomas fourth overall, selected another developmental tackle in Matt Peart (UConn) in the third round and one of my favorite guards in Shane Lemieux (Oregon) in the fourth. Big Blue did draft Oshane Ximines and Lorenzo Carter last year and they selected four linebackers in late April, with two of them having outside flexibility, but they lost their leading sacker in Golden and they just don’t have that true dog up coming off the edge. I like the signing of Kyler Fackrell, who should take over at SAM with a healthy competition for that second spot on the outside, but who will come around the corner and put the heat on opposing quarterbacks consistently? Leonard Williams – who they acquired via trade mid-season and have put the franchise tag on – has some edge flexibility, but I just see a run-plugging beefy D-line that might not be able to get home with their pass-rush. I liked B.J. Hill coming out of N.C. State a couple of years ago with his ability to beat guards, one of their 2019 first-rounders Dexter Lawrence can definitely create push up the middle and Dalvin Tomlinson is excellent at setting up stunts and twists, to create opportunities for his teammates. However, when you look at all those great offensive tackles in the NFC East, I’m just not sure who the G-Men have to seriously threaten off the edge consistently. If they can bring back Golden or sign one of those other veterans out on the market, I would certainly feel better about them. Also because it would help a young room of guys at that position.

Philadelphia Eagles – SAM linebacker

I had the Eagles as NFC favorites coming into 2019, but after DeSean Jackson went down following a monster week one performance, that entire receiver room was split into pieces and they were desperate for speed. That’s why they selected TCU’s Jalen Reagor in the first round, traded for Marquise Goodwin and drafted Boise State’s John Hightower on day three. With those guys added to the best tight-end duo in the league, a breakout back like Miles Sanders going into year two and a strong O-line to support Carson Wentz, I really like this offense. Defensively, they traded for Darius Slay, who was a top ten corner for a long stretch until he was a little banged up last season and they signed Javon Hargreave to add to the interior D-line. However, that whole linebacker corp may not be a strength for them next season. I like T.J. Edwards as a thumping MIKE and Duke Riley when healthy and kept clean can make some plays from the weak-side, but then at SAM I certainly have question marks. Right now it looks like Nathan Gerry and Jatavis Brown could compete for that spot, but depending on how they want to use that position, I don’t see them putting either one over the tight-end to control the point of attack. The Eagles drafted Colorado’s Davion Taylor in third round, who I had as about my 20th-ranked linebacker. He was basically a big nickel in college and certainly is the kind of explosive athlete who can make some splash plays, but he was never really tagged with box duties and weighed in at under 230 pounds at the combine. Their fourth-rounder K’Von Wallace from Clemson is a natural fit in the slot, but Philly also lost Malcolm Jenkins in free agency. NFL teams play with 5+ DBs on the field over 70 percent of the snaps on average, but against heavy personnel this group of backers could be exposed, and the two LBs they would keep on the field on sub haven’t been true difference-makers in the league.

Washington Redskins – Slot receiver

There are some things Ron Rivera still has to figure out about this Washington defense, depending on the status of Reuben Foster at linebacker and how he wants to assemble the secondary, but with a defensive line that now has Chase Young, Jonathan Allen, Da’Ron Payne, Montez Sweat and others, they are going to wreak some havoc. For this team it is really more about the offense and in particular what Dwayne Haskins can do in year two. His support system wasn’t great in 2019, with Adrian Peterson being their top back and their most productive receiver being third-round pick Terry McLaurin, who Haskins had just been throwing passes to at Ohio State and had an excellent rookie campaign considering the erratic QB play. While Trent Williams is now finally off the team, this year’s third-rounder Saahdiq Charles should at least be an upgrade over what they had last season and I like some of other guys they added. I would have definitely said tight-end here, but to get Thaddeus Moss as an undrafted free agent, who may not be the most dynamic pass-catcher, but is very reliable pass-catcher and an excellent in-line blocker, could fix that issue. Instead I’m looking more towards the receivers. I had last year’s sixth-rounder Kelvin Harmon ranked over guys like Patriots first-round pick N’Keal Harry and the Colts’ second-rounder Parris Campbell and then Washington got another one of my favorites this time around with Liberty’s Antonio Gandy-Golden in the fourth round. What do all three of those guys have in common? – They did most of their damage on the outside in college. McLaurin has played some in the slot and could move inside on 11 personnel sets, but their best true slot receiver is Trey Quinn, who didn’t even crack the 200-yard mark last season and caught just one TD. I certainly believe they could use an upgrade there, in the mold of what Haskins had in his one year as a starter in college with the aforementioned Campbell, to get involved on jet sweeps, shallow crossers and other easy yardage plays.


NFC South:


Atlanta Falcons – WILL linebacker

The Falcons defense was a mess last season, with a mixture of bad play and miscommunication. With all the investments they made on the offensive line a year ago, they could completely focus on the defensive side of the ball. I first thought about edge rusher for Atlanta, because they lost Vic Beasley, who might have never lived up to his draft status outside of one abnormal 15.5-sack campaign, but was still a high-upside pass rusher when allowed to just go. However, I think Dante Fowler will be an upgrade and their first-rounder from 2017 in Takk McKinley has shown flashes. I certainly have questions about they interior, where I thought they would actually go if they found a partner to trade up with in the draft. Grady Jarrett is one of the best 3-techs in the league, but he has barely had help around him and actually had to line up in the A-gaps more than he would like to. The Falcons selected Auburn’s Marlon Davidson early on day two of the draft, who I think best fits shading the outside shoulder of guards as well, so maybe they plan on moving Jarrett inside even more. Davidson played a hybrid outside backer in college, so he could play some heavy end as well and then you possibly have Fowler at SAM with more Over looks. The other options on the inside are a run-stopping Tyler Davidson and Deadrin Senat, who has some potential. I think a more proven 1-tech would have been a good addition, but instead I’m focusing more on the second level of the defense. Deion Jones is a super-rangy MIKE, who can cover shifty backs one-on-one as well, but Atlanta lost his partner in crime in De’Vondre Campbell. They brought in Fresno State’s Mykal Walker early on day three of the draft, who lined up a lot on the edge in college and could potentially start on the strong-side for them, but they still need a WILL, who can take away cutback lanes in the run game and punish single receivers for catching simple slant routes.

Carolina Panthers – Right guard

You could maybe nit-pick at a spot or two on defense for the Panthers, but when you spend all seven of your draft picks on that side of the ball, you can’t really complain and we really still have to see how they put all those pieces together. Instead I’m looking at the offensive line, where they just traded away Pro Bowl guard Trai Turner for a fragile tackle in Russell Okung from the Chargers. I would strongly guess that this was more due to cap purposes, but after losing Andrew Norwell in free agency last year already – who in fairness has been a disappointment in Jacksonville so far – that group has gone from a strength to more of a concern. I could see Okung move inside in order to let their talented second-round pick from 2019 in Greg Little develop, but he looked pretty lost out there as a rookie. John Miller who projects to be the starter at left guard had a solid start to his career with Buffalo, but took a step back with a lackluster Bengals O-line last season and Dennis Daley is really more of a natural fit on the edge. With what they have on their roster right now, flipping Okung to the right side and moving Taylor Moton one spot to the inside, with Little being thrown in the fire again, would probably put their best five out on the field, but I think they would be best suited to add another interior O-lineman to at least add some competition. New QB Teddy Bridgewater finished dead-last among starting QBs in intended air yards last season. I still have to see how that meshes with those vertical targets the Panthers have in D.J. Moore, Robby Anderson and to some degree Curtis Samuel, who I personally believe Joe Brady will use more on slants and crossers underneath – his version of Justin Jefferson so to speak.

New Orleans Saints – Speed receiver

When I looked at this Saints roster in preparation for my 2020 mock draft, it was tough to find a true hole on the depth chart. The one position I thought they could address was MIKE linebacker, since their only LB on their roster with at least 30 percent of the snaps outside of Demario Davis is now gone, and I thought Patrick Queen would be a good fit in this pass-heavy division. Instead they went with my top-rated interior O-lineman in Cesar Ruiz before letting Larry Warford go, which is a little bit of a head-scratcher simply because they only got cheaper – not necessarily better. Still, I think third-rounder Zack Baun (Wisconsin) will start at SAM and I love their undrafted free agent Joe Bachie (Michigan State), who I believe could start at MIKE for them as a rookie and then be subbed off more on third downs possibly. Therefore I went back to the receiver position, which I thought was their biggest area of improvement before bringing in Emmanuel Sanders in free agency. Drew Brees may no longer throw the deep ball very effectively or want to at all, but you still need to somehow stretch the field and clear space. Michael Thomas broke the single season reception record because he is a physical possession-type receiver, who they heavily target on slants and crossing routes. Sanders once was a true deep threat, but he is now 33 years old and wins more with crafty route-running (even though he had a step on the defense for a potential game-winner in this past Super Bowl). So with Drew you may not be able to fully utilize that deep threat, but having somebody who can use that speed horizontally on crossers and just to open up room underneath would help the other pass-catchers there a lot. Tre’Quan Smith has that long speed, but he hasn’t developed the way I thought he could.

Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Offensive line depth

No team in the league has shifted expectations more than these Bucs. It is not only about Tom Brady being brought in, but also Gronk coming out of retirement and some nice additions in the draft. When you look at their defense finishing 29th in the NFL in terms of points allowed, you certainly want to improve on that, but they quietly were the number one run-stopping unit in the league and they bring everybody back in their second season under Todd Bowles. They have all the players to take the next step, plus another chess piece in Minnesota Antoine Winfield Jr. as Bowles’ version of the Honeybadger, and they won’t be put in so many tough spots off turnovers by their offense, where the opposing team is in scoring range right away or these guys are just tired out. Their group of skill-position players on offense is up there with the best, so it’s really about protecting Brady. Now with Tristan Wirfs being drafted 13th overall to add to the mix, this starting five looks pretty strong. It will be between their 2018 third-rounder Alex Cappa and veteran Joe Haeg as well as about how much Wirfs can clean up his footwork in pass-protection – in a heavily shortened offseason program at the very least – who will be that second starter on the right side at guard or tackle. Either way, Tampa Bay should have one solid backup but I don’t know who they plan on being their seventh guy on gameday and I don’t believe a lot of people have even heard the names Brad Seaton, Zack Bailey or Aaron Stinnie before. I’m still very interested to see how much of a hybrid between Bruce Arians’ vertical passing offense and New England’s Erhardt-Perkins system – which allowed Brady to spread the defense out and create mismatches – this will be. No matter what, protecting the 43-year old legend is priority number one and you can’t be one injury away from having a liablity on the O-line potentially.


NFC West:


Arizona Cardinals – Secondary depth

The Cardinals went into the offseason with two major needs to make this Kliff Kingsbury offense work – a true number one receiver and a starting right tackle. A good month before the draft, it looked like they would have to decide on either one of the two with their eight overall pick. Instead they were able to package a bad contract of David Johnson and a second-round pick for superstar DeAndre Hopkins and I believe they found their starting tackle in the third round with Joshua Jones, who I had graded as a late first-rounder, which allowed them to select Clemson do-it-all defender Isaiah Simmons with that top ten pick. That’s about as good they could have hoped for and with beef added to the D-line on day three to compete in a run-heavy division, they can now address the 31st-ranked pass defense. I’m not totally sure about how they will utilize their corners. Patrick Peterson looked a little slow and old last season, but he should be a fixture for them. Last year’s second-round pick Byron Murphy out of Washington had some growing pains early on, but he was my CB1 in the draft and definitely showed fight as well as improvement throughout the season. The Cardinals also brought in veteran Robert Alford, so I could see them moving Murphy more into the slot. I’ve always loved Budda Baker as a little lighter version of Tyrann Mathieu and I still believe in one of their day three selection in last year’s draft in Deionte Thompson from Alabama, who only fell due to injury concerns, but has the range and feel to excel in a free safety role, if he can clean up his tackling a little bit. It will be interesting to see how exactly the Cards will utilize Simmons and another versatile first-round linebacker from in 2018 in Haason Reddick, but when it comes to true defensive backs, right now they probably rely on Jalen Thompson and the third-most popular Chris Jones in the NFL as their first backups in the secondary. That leaves something to be desired.

Los Angeles Rams – Edge rusher

To be honest, I’m a little concerned about these Rams. Acquiring Jalen Ramsey for two first-round picks is worth it for me, considering he could be the premiere corner in football for the next five years or so, and I like the players they selected in the draft in a vacuum, but since the regular season concluded, I’m not sure they got better at one single position. I think the combination of Darrell Henderson and second-rounder Cam Akers (Florida State) will be more effective than what they had in a banged up Todd Gurley and Florida’s Van Jefferson is an exquisite route-runner, who can produce right away – unlike Brandin Cooks, who simply hasn’t really been available. However, they lost a rangy linebacker in Corey Littleton and their top edge rusher in Dante Fowler through free agency, while not doing anything to improve the O-line. To replace Fowler, they brought in Leonard Floyd, who is a good Robin, but they don’t have a real Batman coming off the edge. In the third round of the draft they selected Terrell Lewis, who had top 50 talent, but he only had one full season with Alabama and I’m not sure if you can expect him to play all 16 games as a pro in 2020. Samson Ebukam has given the team some production and I liked their fifth-rounder out Oklahoma from a year ago in Ogbonnia Okoronkwo, but those guys might be more rotational pass-rushers. Maybe they hope for Jachai Polite to get his act together, but when you consider the Jets let him go early on after spending a day two pick of him and needing somebody on the edge desperately themselves, that is more of a shot in the dark. Obviously you have an elite player on the interior in Aaron Donald and he makes a lot of issues disappear, but nobody has really established himself on the edge for L.A. I also don’t know if Lirim Hajrullahu, who I had never heard before, can replace Greg Zuerlein at kicker.

San Francisco 49ers – Cornerback

Coming off a devastating Super Bowl loss, I believe the 49ers have done a really solid job retooling their roster. Trading away a team MVP in DeForest Buckner obviously hurts, but replacing him with a similar type of player with sky-high potential in Javon Kinlaw from South Carolina with that pick you just acquired and you pay him less than a fifth of the price, makes that much easier to swallow. Their other first-rounder Brandon Aiyuk (Arizona State) gives them any YAC weapon in place of Emmanuel Sanders and they basically got All-Pro left tackle Trent Williams for peanuts, with the retirement of Joe Staley pending. I’m not worried about the offense with Kyle Shanahan calling the shots, as long as Jimmy G can shake that fourth quarter of the Super Bowl. Their defense was elite already last season, but that doesn’t mean they can’t still improve, especially when you looking at their secondary situation. Richard Sherman, K’Waun Williams and Ahkello Witherspoon will all become free agents in 2021. Witherspoon is still so up-and-down with lackluster technique. I like Emmanuel Moseley as that second guy on the outside and Jason Verrett still is an X-factor here, because he was one of the rising stars early on in San Diego, but I feel like I haven’t seen him play in like five years. D.J. Reed is a really nice backup nickel and Dontae Johnson was a solid player for them in his first stint with San Francisco, but he has barely seen the field these last three years. As part as covering the slot goes, whether it’s putting Jaquiski Tartt down against bigger bodies in base sets, keeping K’Waun Williams at nickel and even a guy like Reed coming in off the bench, are all viable options, but in terms of true outside corners, you are looking at a 32-year old Richard Sherman and a battle of what are more backups on most rosters. The Niners are set for a while at several positions, but cornerback isn’t one of them.

Seattle Seahawks – Right tackle

I don’t understand how some people still think of the Seahawks as some kind of dominant defense. They finished last season 26th in the league in yards allowed and they gave up 20+ points in all but two games. I think they have issues at corner (depending on the status of recently acquired Quinton Dunbar) and without Jadeveon Clowney their pass-rush is underwhelming, with Bobby Wagner being the only elite player on that unit. However, they did go defense-heavy in the draft and I wouldn’t say they don’t have the bodies to compete, so I’m going back to the continual problem child. The Seahawks have ignored issues on the offensive line for years now and once again this time around I mocked a tackle to them in the first round. Instead they went with a surprise pick – as they always do – in Texas Tech linebacker Jordyn Brooks. They did select LSU guard Damien Lewis early in the third, but he was not nearly my top guy available at that point. They also cut long-time center Justin Britt and the powerful D.J. Fluker who has guard/tackle flexibility. So I certainly don’t believe they got better up front. B.J. Finney looks to slide in at center and in this offense without a ton of true drop-back passes Lewis at least competes for a starting guard spot, but Cedric Ogbuehi is still not the solution at right tackle. The Hawks went from one of the biggest liabilities at that spot in Germain Ifedi to a maybe even bigger one in Ogbuehi. In his two seasons as a starter in Cincinnati, the new acquired tackle was responsible for 14.5 sacks. These last two years he hasn’t been in the starting lineup and now faces the likes of Chandler Jones, Nick Bosa and others in the NFC West. That is a recipe for disaster. Maybe Seattle moves Ethan Pocic to right tackle if two other guys impress at those guard spots.


If you enjoyed this content, I would really appreciate if you could visit the original piece - https://halilsrealfootballtalk.com/2020/05/19/biggest-remaining-needs-for-each-team-in-the-nfc-for-2020/

You can also listen to my breakdown on Youtube - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbcmXpqxxqI
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2020.02.05 12:11 Wiggwogg Joseph Biblical Lecture Rewrite - Joseph and his Technicolour Ideology

Joseph Biblical Lecture Rewrite - Joseph and his Technicolour Ideology
Joseph's dreams -> communist flags
I have attempted a rewrite of Jordan's 'Joseph' lecture - *some plagiarism*. I think his, and the majority of the practices of the faith, have got the narrative wrong. Living in Taiwan you cannot hesitate to understand the implications of the Chinese national flag and what it stands for, therefore when you are met with the dreams of Joseph and see the same symbols used, you have to stop and wonder.
Once you enter into the story with a different mindset a different narrative emerges.
Scroll down for the entire rewrite, a short snippet of the 'revelation':
The Chinese flag, for those of you who don’t know, is of a large star, overshadowing four smaller stars. It symbolizes the ideology that puts the Communist Party above all the four ethnic groups, say tribes, of China. Working with the Chinese the last 8 years of my life I am acutely aware of how this is indoctrinated into the Chinese people’s mindset through intense propaganda, which now gets to a point that the Party is deemed more important than one’s own family. Empirical evidence to this can be seen in the pandemic dissolution of family values shown in birth and divorce rates across China. The Chinese flag symbolism is identical to that of Joseph’s second dream.
Next, to more profound symbols of communism, the sickle and the hammer. The sickle is the symbol of farming, the implement allowing the collection of grain into sheaves. Marx in his early life wrote poetry before fully articulating out his disastrous communist thesis which resulted in tens of, if not, hundreds of millions of deaths in the 20th and 21st centuries. His poem “Invocation of One in Despair” is one such terrifying poem. The poem starts “So god has snatched from me my all”, and goes on “I shall build my throne high overhead, cold, tremendous shall its summit be”, “the Almighty’s lightning shall rebound, from that massive iron giant. If he bring my walls and towers down, eternity shall raise them up, defiant.”
...........
I look forward to your criticism, corrections and comments. As Jordan says not everyone is a writer.

Imego Dei
In the beginning of any Biblical analysis we must first remind ourselves of the foundational narratives. We must always consider Imego Dei. The Bible continuously emphasises that we are free agents with the capacity to choose sin or holiness, and that we have the obligation to do so. We are holy; we are made in the image of God; the image whose Spirit can transform the darkness on the face of the deep into light, and that this transformation, made with the Spirit, is good. We are all equal in that capacity to act as Godly creatures, although we may have different capabilities.
The importance of this cannot be underestimated in all interpretations of the bible, as it is the fundamental defining aspect of the Judaic-Christian world view, as well as the fundamental defining aspect of the western world view our societies are built upon. Magna Carta, the Declaration of Independence, “these truths held to be self-evident, that all men are created equal”, are in fact not self-evident, and were only made so by the Judaic-Christian philosophy that every soul is created with the divine spark. Even the Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, who, of recent, have enjoyed a resurgence in popularity, built their sense of moral order first and foremost with the individual as part of the state that governs him.
In Egyptian religion, initially only the Pharaoh enjoyed the sanctity of his soul. He became a man-god, to be worshiped and through which all communication with the gods could be made. Over the course of the dynasties this sanctity was passed down to the elite, but it was never given to the commoner. The Judaic-Christian idea that this sanctity of the soul is passed down to the slaves and your enemies is not a self-evident philosophy.
One of the debates, we might say, between early Christianity and the late Roman Empire was whether or not an emperor could be God—literally to be deified and put into a temple. You can see why that might happen, because that’s someone at the pinnacle of a very steep hierarchy, who has a tremendous amount of power and influence. The Christian response to that was, ‘never confuse the specific sovereign with the principle of sovereignty itself.’ It’s brilliant. You can see how difficult it is to come up with an idea like that, so that even the person who has the power is actually subordinate to a divine principle, for lack of a better word. Even the king himself is subordinate to the principle. We still believe that, because we believe our Prime Minister is subordinate to the damn law.
Whatever the body of law, there's a principle inside that even the leader is subordinate to. Without that, you could argue that you can’t even have a civilized society, because your leader immediately turns into something that’s transcendent and all-powerful. That's certainly what happened in the Soviet Union, and what happened in Maoist China, and what happened in Nazi Germany. There was nothing for the powerful to subordinate themselves to. You’re supposed to be subordinate to God.
What does that mean? Well, built on top of the Imego Dei foundation in the Bible is a morality on how one is best to ACT in order to bring that idea out into being. How to transform the world through actions in the same way as God’s actions transformed the world so to speak. The Bible also fully defines how NOT TO ACT in order not to bring this about as well. These moralities are illustrated in the accounts of the Biblical persons, who act in the world as flawed and fallen men, so that we may learn from their mistakes, just as much as we can learn from their successes.
The Dreams
The story of Joseph is one of these narratives. Now a very famous story, helped into the collective sphere by the wonderful dramatization by Sir Webber, it looks positively on the twelfth son of Jacob/Israel (he who wrestles with God) as a dream interpreter who saves Egypt from a famine. Perhaps he is most famous for his technicolour dream-coat which is given to him.
Just as the technicolour dream-coat is not exactly technicolour in the precise biblical translation, my argument, based on the actual narrative taken within the context of the book of Genesis as a whole, and the story’s impending result, i.e. subjection of the people of Israel to tyranny and slavery, is that the currently held position of looking positively on Joseph’s behaviour is taken from a false romanticism of the story. The way it is currently told is much better for the dramatic stage than for providing a morality on the correct way to be in the world in order to bring about the good of God. Perhaps in similar fashion to how the nursey rhymes of the brother’s Grim are highly bent in order to appropriately appear on our television screens.
The Biblical stories are so fascinating because they appeal to all ranges of intellect, for example the concept that to become Israel you must first ‘wrestle with God’, is so deeply profound and simple all at same time. The same is true in the first narrative on Joseph, as we are told Joseph is a snitch, and that he is his father’s favourite.
“Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children." That’s probably not so good. One of the main themes in the Genesis stories that have preceded this, is that, whenever there’s marked preference on the part of parents for one child over the other—with Jacob and Esau, Jacob was Rachel’s favourite, and Esau was Isaac’s favourite. That didn’t work out so well. That put a real twist in the whole structure of the family. So there’s a warning, there. You might say, ‘well, you can’t help having a preference of one child over another.’ But I don’t know if that’s true, and it’s certainly something you should be very cautious about. It doesn’t seem to work out very well.
Well, we already know that Joseph is Jacob’s favourite, so that doesn’t make him very popular among his brothers. He’s younger, and now we also find out that he’s been set up, more or less, as a snitch, because that’s what this phrase means: he goes and watches his older brothers, and, if they do something they shouldn’t do, he comes trotting back to Jacob, and reports. Well, that’s not going to make you popular. And you would say, ‘well, is that Joseph’s problem or Jacob’s problem?’ I would say that it is a conspiratorial problem. The parents are at fault, but so is the child who agrees to do that. They’ve got a little cabal, going. You might say, ‘well, it’s only the parents’ fault,’ but the son will be taking advantage of every advantage that offers him. He could say, ‘no, I won’t do that.’ So, anyways, Joseph is the favourite. He’s a bit of a teacher’s pet. That’s what it looks like.
So let’s say you have a child, or a number of children, and one of them is your favourite. How should you treat that child? Well, it isn’t obvious that you do them any favours by overtly making them your favourite. First of all, maybe you don’t challenge them as much as you should. Second of all, you definitely set up a Cain and Abel-like scenario, in the household - or maybe it’s an Oedipal situation, too, because you happen to love your child more than you love your spouse. That’s not a recipe for familial harmony. It seems to be a bad idea.
Ok, so now we have two reasons that Joseph is not liked by his brothers. One is, well, he’s a bit of a rat fink, and the other is that he’s the favourite - and he’s playing that to the hilt, by the looks of things.
This sets the stage for a much more complex idea which comes next in the form of Joseph’s dreams. Joseph dreams two dreams, the first involving sheaves of grain, which all were made obeisance to Joseph’s sheave, which arose and stood upright above the rest. The second has the same symbology, but with stars, this time specifically targeting his 11 brothers and mother and father.
In both cases Joseph is rebuked. Interestingly, the biased narrative is that Joseph’s brothers are the ones to rebuke Joseph, but in fact it is first rebuked by the brothers, but then the second dream is rebuked by Israel, Joseph’s father.
Furthermore, the modern bias assumes that these dreams are provided by God, but the narrative doesn’t allude to this at all. This is in stark contrast to all dreams the predicate and follow this one, in which specifically mention that God, or the Lord, was in the dream, or enters the dream, or was ‘in that place’. No such conclusion is made in the Joseph dream narrative. With this in mind we should assume that these dreams, whilst predicting intent and therefore in some way a prophecy, they are not beholden of God’s presence.
Modern psychology has quite a lot to say on people who have repeating dreams. Carl Jung’s analysis of dreams has certainly shown the case that recurrent nightmares are meaningful, and that recurrent nightmares are associated quite tightly with decreased states of mental health. If you can treat the nightmare, then some of the mental health problems will decrease. In the case of Jung’s dream analysis he on more than one occasion predicted the death or suicide of his patients. Jung provides a most startling example of a 10-year old girl’s 12 dreams which include an evil snake, which came to devour her and was rescued by God coming from the four corners of the earth, and an ascent to heaven, where pagan dancers are being celebrated, and a decent to hell, where angels are doing good deeds, as the first two dreams. One year later the girl died of an infectious disease.
The question arises are people responsible for their dreams? In the modern era we don’t really hold ourselves responsible for the dreams we have at night. Then what do you make of a dream? One of the things that Jung pointed out—this is where he differed from Freud, substantially. Freud tended to think that the dream hid its meaning, because its contents weren’t acceptable to the conscious mind. Jung said, ‘no, no. You don’t understand. That’s not what happens. The dream is doing the best it can to express something that the person doesn’t yet really know.’ Jung thought about the dream as a manifestation of nature. It wasn’t associated with the ego, at all. It was like, you have a dream, and there are things happening in it—the same way that things are happening when you walk into a dinner party. The dream isn’t something that’s subject to your capacity for manipulation. It’s something that happens to you; it’s not something that you do.
In this sense we can interpret Joseph’s dream as something that he doesn’t yet really know about himself, and which the dream is trying to make Joseph aware of in terms of his own personality. And as already stated, with a seeming lack of God’s presence in the dream, this should be our conclusion, as it is for the rest of his family. "Would you indeed reign over us?" questions Jacob!
Going deeper into the dream, with the benefit of hindsight, we can see an even scarier revelation and prediction of a much darker outcome. Perhaps coming to me in a dream, or perhaps thanks to the coronavirus and the leading BBC news article this morning discussing Taiwan’s frustration at China’s limitation on Taiwan’s participating in the WHO, I am more acutely tuned into the symbols of communist China, and their implications, so as I mediated on this story of Joseph I became fully aware of what Joseph’s dreams symbolized.
The Chinese flag, for those of you who don’t know, is of a large star, overshadowing four smaller stars. It symbolizes the ideology that puts the Communist Party above all the four ethnic groups, say tribes, of China. Working with the Chinese the last 8 years of my life I am acutely aware of how this is indoctrinated into the Chinese people’s mindset through intense propaganda, which now gets to a point that the Party is deemed more important than one’s own family. Empirical evidence to this can be seen in the pandemic dissolution of family values shown in birth and divorce rates across China. The Chinese flag symbolism is identical to that of Joseph’s second dream.
Next, to more profound symbols of communism, the sickle and the hammer. The sickle is the symbol of farming, the implement allowing the collection of grain into sheaves. Marx in his early life wrote poetry before fully articulating out his disastrous communist thesis which resulted in tens of, if not, hundreds of millions of deaths in the 20th and 21st centuries. His poem “Invocation of One in Despair” is one such terrifying poem. The poem starts “So god has snatched from me my all”, and goes on “I shall build my throne high overhead, cold, tremendous shall its summit be”, “the Almighty’s lightning shall rebound, from that massive iron giant. If he bring my walls and towers down, eternity shall raise them up, defiant.”
We do not know if Marx’s ideology came to him in a dream, but we do know creative expression is often derived from a dream like state. Notable examples of this are that of Milton’s Paradise Lost and Dante’s Inferno, but also some of the greatest scientific revelations also; the periodic table; evolution (Wallace, not Darwin); aromatic chemistry; and the scientific method itself from Descartes, all came to them in dreams. It is therefore not too far of a stretch to think that Marx too, got his thoughts from within a dream state, or at least partially exposed to him creatively through his unconscious.
With this in mind Joseph’s dreams have much scarier undertones than the modern narrative skims over and suggests. It exposes a desire in Joseph’s unconscious self which places himself and the state of - insert Mao, Stalin, or Pharaoh – as the ultimate power to which must be bowed down to, enslaving the children of – insert China, Russia, or Israel – “to hard labour, mortar and in brick, and in all manner of labour in the field.” Exodus.
No wonder his brothers and father are not happy with Joseph.
The rest of the account supports this interpretation, not least of which the fact that the people of Israel do end up slaves in a tyrannical state with many crossovers to that of communist Russia, China, Venezuela, Cambodia, North Korea, Nazi Germany. This should be further made obvious by fact that there is always cause and effect in the Biblical narrative, the Israelites are never arbitrarily destroyed, they are destroyed because they become blind and corrupt, and no longer walk with God, this is true of every other narrative. The modern conclusion that this comes out of nowhere after Joseph’s death is a complete misread of the Joseph story progression.
There is a book called Ordinary Men by Christopher Browning, whose narrative is worth keeping in mind as the story of Joseph unfolds. The books illustrates the seemingly normal German men, who, for whatever reason weren’t placed on the front line, but instead were tasked with the clean-up of Poland in World War II. The men were given free opinion not to participate and there was minimal penalties for leaving your post and returning home, but most of the men stayed. What proceeded to happen over a number of incremental stages was that they first gathered the Jews into slums; then they loaded the Jewish men onto trains; next they also put the women and children on the trains; and just like that, through a series of small steps, you got to the point where these Ordinary Men were capable of shooting the old and disabled immediately on sight; and taking pregnant mothers out into fields, raping them and shooting them in the head afterwards.
You could also reference Viktor Frankl, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, or many of the other people who wrote on the holocaust and the catastrophes in the Soviet Union also whilst you read. The people who studied these events most deeply always came to the same conclusion: the state became corrupted because each individual allowed themselves to be corrupted, or perhaps participated joyfully in the process of being corrupted. The consequence of that was the end of the world. So what that means is that, if you don’t behave properly, then you bring about the end of the world. Maybe you think, well, that’s only the end of your world. Fair enough. Or maybe it’s only the end of your family’s world, which, I suppose, might give you some pause. But there’s more to it than that, because you’re connected to everyone else, and what you do that isn’t good distributes itself, and all the things that you don’t do that could be good take away from the whole.
God with Joseph:
So, back to the narrative. The brothers aren’t very happy about the dreams of Joseph’s dominion over them, so they conspire to kill him, but thanks to Ruben they decide not to. This echoes nicely the contrast in western society which is predicated on innocence before guilt, contrasted with China’s locking up of the Xinjiang Muslims for crimes they ‘predict they will commit’. It can also be comically shown in Ricky Gervais’ argument that he wouldn’t even kill baby Hitler if given the option to travel back in time in a time machine, because, “have you seen how cute baby Hitler was, I wouldn’t kill him, I’d just try to make sure he got into art school”. It is the same thing. Ruben hopes that perhaps by sending Joseph off he might not become that which permeates the darker side of his personality.
"And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go? And they took Joseph’s coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood."
So Ruben is upset, but there’s very interesting symbolism here too, because blood is actually a colour. He’s got this coat, and blood is definitely a colour, and by covering the coat in blood it does make the coat multicoloured for the first time in the narrative – this is perhaps where Sir Webber got it from? So this is the addition, in some sense, of the colour of blood to Joseph’s coat. I would say it’s probably a necessary colour. Perhaps you aren’t serious enough until your coat has been dipped in blood?
And Ruben turns out to be right, because you’d think, ‘well, this is a man who has a lot of reason to be irritated at the structure of reality.’ He’s gone from being the favourite, to being betrayed by all of his brothers - that’s pretty rough - and then he’s been transformed into a slave, and now he’s being sold, to work as a slave. You’d think that would corrupt his character. But it doesn’t.
"And the Lord was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian. And his master saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper in his hand."
So that’s an echo of the idea that is encountered earlier in Genesis, of walking with God. So Adam walked with God before he ate the fruit with Eve, and then he wouldn’t walk with God. And then Noah walked with God, and Abraham walked with God. The idea is that, well, that’s the alignment with the highest ideal. I think it’s something like that. We can think about that as a metaphysical claim, as well. This is significant for latter in the story.
Judah Detour:
Here the Bible also takes an interesting sideways detour to talk about Judah, which may be seen as a distraction, but it is ultimately critical to the entire story and the future of the Israelite nation. Judah ultimately ends up with twin sons, Perez and Zerah. They contrast Isaac and his sons Esau and Jacob (Israel) in two ways, one that the lineage is maintained in the traditional order, i.e. the oldest son is the heir to the inheritance, and in their names. Perez means ‘breaking forth’, and Zerah means ‘scarlet’. Contrasted with Esau, which means ‘red’, and Jacob, which means ‘to supplant’. The symbolism in the opposites shouldn’t be ignored, especially when contrasted with Joseph’s sons later on in the story, and that the lineage of the prophets (Isaiah, Amos, Haakuk, Joel, Micah, Obadiah, Zechariah, Zephaniah) and ultimately Jesus, all go through the royal line of Judah.
Too much chaos:
"And it came to pass after these things, that his master’s wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me. But he refused, and said unto his master’s wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my hand. There is none greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back anything from me but thee, because thou art his wife: how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?”
"And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spake unto him, saying, After this manner did thy servant to me; that his wrath was kindled. And Joseph’s master took him, and put him into prison, a place where the king’s prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison."
Well, that sort of sucks. First his brothers betray him, and throw him in a pit. Then he gets made a slave—which is probably better than being in the pit—and then he becomes kind of like king-slave, so that’s working out pretty well. Now, someone lies about him; he gets betrayed again, and it’s into prison with him. So it’s order, chaos, order chaos. You have to think, ‘well, are you the order, are you the chaos, or are you the thing that’s moving between?’ That’s the right thing to be. Otherwise, you’re just order, and that’s a really bad idea. Or you’re just chaos, and that’s a really bad idea. You can be the thing that’s dynamically mediating between them, and that’s what he’s doing.
"But the Lord was with Joseph, and shewed him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison."
That’s no easy thing to do, I would think: you’re thrown in prison, and now the jailer likes you. How exactly are you going to manage that? It’s a good thing to think about. If you were really in dire straits, how is it that you should conduct yourself, so that you have the highest probability of having things work out? It’s not saying, ‘well, Joseph took over the thumbscrew, and started using that on the other prisoners.’ That’s not the indication, here, at all; it’s that he’s acting like a person who isn’t a prisoner, even though he’s in the prison—just like he was acting like someone who wasn’t a slave, when he was a slave. It makes you wonder who you could be, despite the fact that other people think that you’re whatever you appear to be.
"And the keeper of the prison committed to Joseph’s hand all the prisoners that were in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it. The keeper of the prison looked not to anything that was under his hand; because the Lord was with him, and that which he did, the Lord made it to prosper."
It’s a repeat of exactly what happened when he was the slave of the Pharaoh, except it’s one rung deeper into hell, so to speak. It was slave for Pharaoh, and here it’s prisoner for jail master. But it doesn’t matter. The same thing happens.
So now he’s in prison, and the Pharaoh has a fit, one day, and throws the chief of his butlers into prison, and the chief of his bakers. Each of them has a dream, and Joseph interprets the dreams. It seems to be something that he can do. He tells the butler that his dream means that Pharaoh is going to forgive him and put him back in his position. He tells the baker that the Pharaoh isn’t going to forgive him, and that he’s going to take off his head and hang him in a tree, which is a rather rough dream. But that’s what happens. So, anyways, the butler goes free, and Joseph says, ‘look, maybe you could just keep in mind the fact that I did you a bit of a favour, here, and told you something that was accurate.’
But the chief didn’t really remember once he was freed…
Shaven:
This is the unfortunate final turning point in the narrative of Joseph. Joseph gets remembered only when it is advantageous for the butler to remember him, after TWO full years. The narrative doesn’t explicitly say that Joseph become embittered by this final betrayal, but with careful reading of the text it can most definitely be implied. Of course, as just mention, it is no bloody wonder, but, as we shall find out the change of character has serious implications.
Joseph sacrificed all his earthly power in order to triumph as an Israelite, and that just moved him further from his secret goal laid out in his dreams. Joseph has a particular talent for using the ways of wordly power - appearance, favour, influence – and now he will use them in a different way, in honour of an earthly master.
Joseph shaves, a notable symbolic transformation, especially for Israelites. More noticeable however is the immediate disappearance of God in the narrative. No longer is God with Joseph in the same way as he was in the house, and God for sure no longer blesses Joseph’s actions. As discussed above, this is important and significant, as walking with God and being with God is key language the narrators use to imply the presence of the one true God.
We must also reflect back to our knowledge of the Egyptian religion, that the Pharaoh was seen by the whole society as the only mouthpiece and communication channel to the Egyptian gods, which was a rite barely passed down to the Egyptian priests over the development of the dynasties.
This is exemplified in texts preserved from that era, such as those of Amenemhet I, from the 11th Egyptian dynasty:
“I was the one who produced barely and loved the grain god. The Nile respected me at every defile. None hungered in my years or thirsted in them. Men dwelt in peace through that which I wrought.”
So within that context we can read the next line from Joseph after he hears the Pharaoh’s dream. ‘This is the message just as I have told Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do.’. This passage can of course be read under the popular narrative that Joseph is referring to the God of his fathers, but again I would argue it is not implicit, and the lack of God being with Joseph could easily question this presupposition. Furthermore the Hebrew word of God changes in the narrative from יְהוָה֙ (Yahweh – the true God of Israel) when Joseph is ‘with the Lord’, to הָאֱלֹהִ֛ים (Elohim – God, god, gods, mighty, rulers), in this new situation with the Pharaoh. It could therefore also easily be interpreted as the Egyptian gods’ message to the Pharaoh, through the correct Egyptian lineage of communication of that the Egyptian Pharaoh would want and expect. Actions speak louder than words though, so we can leave this up to debate for now as I am not an expert in Hebrew.
Joseph’s Promotion:
The Pharaoh is really happy with this interpretation regardless, and makes Joseph one of the most important people in the land. He gives him a fancy new robe, a gold chain, a ring, and marries him to an Egyptian priests daughter. The symbolic significance of all these items should be evident, but to add to the historical understanding in Egyptian culture, as with many cultures, marriage was conducted predominately at the same level within the social hierarchy. You can now draw your own conclusions on the significance of the marriage to an Egyptian priest’s daughter in the same way you can for the gold and robe symbolism.
Joseph has two sons, the first, Manasseh, meaning ‘for God has made me forget…all my father’s house’, and the second, Ephraim, to be fruitful. As mentioned with Judah, the implications of children and their names, should not be lost on us either, especially when considering the later developments of these two children.
Joseph then sets up a very successful tax system which gets 1/5th of all grain from the Egyptian people, which he stores on behalf of the Pharaoh in prediction of the drought to come. The morally ambiguous, lacking of God by his side, Joseph then proceeds to sell the grain back to the Egyptians once the drought does come. This is constantly mentioned as highly profitable for the Pharaoh.
Return of the Brothers
Re-enter Joseph’s brothers. A well-known drama ensues. Where Joseph ‘tests’ his brothers, and perhaps rightly so, after-all, they did put Joseph into slavery and perhaps there is some karma that needs dishing out? What is interesting to note however, is that there are dark undertones throughout this section of the narrative, which are easily glossed over, but under a different perspective can be seen as sinister, and not as an innocent jest from Joseph to his brothers.
And Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was that sold to all the people of the land: and Joseph’s brethren came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the earth.
Well, there’s the first dream.
Reben answered them, Did I not tell you, Do not sin against the boy, and you would not hear? Therefore, behold his blood is required [of us].
But they did not know that Joseph understood them, for he spoke to them through an interpreter. And he turned away from them and wept, then he returned to them and talked with them, and took from them Simeon and bound him before their eyes.
Questions to ask yourself. What blood? Why and how have they come to this conclusion if all Joseph wants to do is to see Benjamin?
Joseph also cries. Now crying can be an emotion associated with being upset of course, but there are plenty other reasons people cry. Anger, shame and embarrassment are just as common explanations for adults to cry, in fact, scientific studies of babies show that when they are crying, they are not in fact upset at their mother not being there, they are instead angry. Joseph’s crying occurs when he gets an insight into the fact his brothers are remorseful of what they did, and also petrified of the implications of his demand to see Benjamin. Perhaps instead Joseph knows exactly the severity of what he is doing and is ashamed of himself, and the fulfilment of the prediction his dreams foretold. Joseph knows he has them in his grip and all he needs to do is squeeze.
Suffering the evil:
So happy, happy! Joseph ties up Simeon in front of the brothers and locks him in prison – perfectly normal? And the boys return to Jacob explaining that if they want him back, and if they want more food, they must bring Benjamin along with them. Jacob also knows the implications of this straight away, made clear in the fact he would rather leave Simeon in the jail as long as they still have food, rather than send them back again with Benjamin. “Why did you do me such a wrong and suffer this evil to come upon me by telling that man that you had another brother?” “Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and you would take Benjamin from me.”
"And they said, The man asked us straight of our state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet alive? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words: could we certainly know that he would say, Bring your brother down? And Judah said unto Israel his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also our little ones. I will be surety for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever."
So Judah, who played a pretty dismal role in the original selling of Joseph into slavery, seems to, obviously, have learned something, by this point, since he’s willing to put himself on the line to take responsibility for this situation, and to stand in for Benjamin. So he’s making himself into a sacrificial object, of sorts. Again, it is important Judah does this, as it sets up the right foundation for the royal lineage, as previously mentioned, ending with the ultimate sacrifice of Jesus.
So they return under continued dire conditions to Egypt, where the games of Joseph continue to the point where he entraps, the innocent Benjamin. Remember Benjamin had no part in the initial betrayal on account of his lack of being born, he is the new born lamb so to speak.
Then Judah came near unto him, and said, Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, and let not thine anger burn against thy servant: for thou art even as Pharaoh.
19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Have ye a father, or a brother?
20 And we said unto my lord, We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him.
21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him.
22 And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot leave his father: for if he should leave his father, his father would die.
23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Except your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall see my face no more.
24 And it came to pass when we came up unto thy servant my father, we told him the words of my lord.
25 And our father said, Go again, and buy us a little food.
26 And we said, We cannot go down: if our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down: for we may not see the man's face, except our youngest brother be with us.
27 And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye know that my wife bare me two sons:
28 And the one went out from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in pieces; and I saw him not since:
29 And if ye take this also from me, and mischief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.
30 Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad be not with us; seeing that his life is bound up in the lad's life;
31 It shall come to pass, when he seeth that the lad is not with us, that he will die: and thy servants shall bring down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave.
32 For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father, saying, If I bring him not unto thee, then I shall bear the blame to my father for ever.
33 Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren.
34 For how shall I go up to my father, and the lad be not with me? lest peradventure I see the evil that shall come on my father.
Ok, so what’s happened? Now Judah, again, is willing to stand in the place of Benjamin, and become a slave himself. This plea cripples Joseph, who despite everything, cannot handle the plea made on account of the life of his father and family, ‘and Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried.”
He wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard. This should also be interpreted in an extremely sinister way.
Joseph is revealed in all his glory:
He hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not: and thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children’s children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast: and there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty."
Dream.
“I will sustain and provide for you”
Dream.
“All my glory in Egypt”
Dream.
Jacob’s game is up right, but the Pharaoh also knows. But Joseph has leant what the implications of an unhappy master result in, so Joseph acts quickly to make a plan, and to establish his family in the land of Goshen.
When the Pharaoh knew it pleased him. Note, the only other time the Pharaoh was pleased in such a way is when Joseph proposes his taxation and sale-back of grain for the Pharaoh’s profit. The Pharaoh adds: “Do not look with regret or concern upon your goods.” Is this an act of unprecedented kindness on behalf of the Pharaoh or the makings of a plan? In the modern church it is read as an act of kindness, as well as the promises made by Joseph of similar ilk, but again, we should consider the following actions and accounts, rather than what Joseph and the Pharaoh say onto the brothers.
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2020.02.01 06:33 TheAmazingRyan205 01/31/2020

Today wasn't so bad I guess
I woke up with a pounding headache. Somehow, James had convinced me to stay up until 4:30 playing Minecraft. Of course, I have to wake up at 6:15 to catch the bus, so I only got like 2 hours of sleep last night. Mom was passed out on the couch and Dad was already at work, which meant that I had to make sure Hannah got to school on time. Don't be confused, my mom isn't like an alcoholic or anything, she just works the night shift at this fancy hotel or whatever.
We ended up missing the bus because SOMEONE (cough cough Hannah) forgot to pack their lunch last night. Hannah and I had to run to the next stop to get on, and, of course, there were no empty seats, so I had to sit with some guy I didn't know. My anxiety was skyrocketing and I ended up stealing a seat from some middle school kid after he got off.
The one good thing about school is that I'm pretty good at it. I make good grades without studying so I don't have to worry about any of that bullcrap. I have to help James with his homework sometimes, though. I can't even count the amount of times he's had to copy it from me because he was 'too busy' to finish it (which means he spent all afternoon playing fallout in his basement).
I quickly got to class and dumped my stuff off. My first period is History, which is pretty cool I guess. The teacher, Mr. Taylor, is pretty chill and likes Hamilton. I also have that class with James and Gina (another one of our friends), so that's lit. I head out of the room to look for Gina, since James is never on time in the mornings. He usually shows up half way through class or just skips it all together. It really gets on Mr. Taylor's nerves, but he cant do shit since James' parents don't really care.
I searched the hallways for a bit before I found the strawberry blonde. She was talking with two of her other friends. The first was a tall, flat ginger girl with her hair up in a scrunchie. Her name is Liz, and she's a visco girl who doesn't know anything about being a visco girl other than the aesthetic. The other girl is a shorter, prettier, short haired blonde girl named Meredith. She's by far the cutest girl in our grade, and is a total slut. Last I heard she was dating Dylan Anderson, the sadist, which is bound to end in disaster.
I decide it's not worth it and make my way to the cafeteria instead. I would try to talk with Gina, but I'm not in the mood to deal with Liz and Meredith right now. As I'm waiting in line, an arm slings around my shoulders.
"Morning dude!"
"Oh, good morning, Ethan."
It's Ethan, one of my closest friends. We met in 7th grade when he moved here from Texas. Ethan is a tall, thin, freckly boy with short, curly hair. Despite his appearance, Ethan is a huge athlete at our school, participating in loads of clubs like track and baseball. His favorite sport is soccer, though. I honestly have no idea why he hangs out with us in the first place. He doesn't play video games that much since he's always at track or hanging out with his girlfriend (how'd he get one of those???), and he isn't in drama or art with Gina and Alyssa, so we don't see him that much. Still, he sits at our lunch table, so he's our friend.
"So, have you watched The Office yet?" he asked excitedly.
I hesitated. "I started it, but ended up getting distracted, sorry."
"Nah man, it's cool," Ethan shrugged, "It's not for everyone."
He smiled and punched me in the arm. I'm grateful to have friends other than James, even if Ethan can be annoying sometimes when he's gushing about soccer. He invites us to almost every game, and I can only go to about half of them.
"Oh, I think I see Holly over there. Catch you later, dude!" he smiled before racing off to his girlfriend, Holly. They met in 8th grade, both of them being on the track team. Holly is pretty hot, in the sporty kind of way. She's only a little shorter than Ethan, with tan skin and long, choppy dark hair that just barely reaches to her stomach. Holly is always wearing sporty tees and sneakers, and is very fit. Most girls in our grade are envious of her, including Meredith.
I take my soggy waffles and go sit alone at one of the tables near the window. I normally eat breakfast alone. If I'm lucky, Ethan or Gina will join me. If I'm really lucky, James will come early to school.
"Good morning, Ryan."
I flinch and turn to see the most beautiful girl I have ever met: Alyssa Brown. Alyssa is a dark skinned, slightly chubby girl with shockingly deep blue eyes. She's bold and energetic, always hopping from one topic to the next. Alyssa is an artist and has won many awards for her paintings, but wants to be a reporter when she grows up. She's also really into mystery novels. Like, way too into mystery novels. I've had a crush on her since 4th grade that only James knows about (I hope).
"M-morning Alyssa!" I stuttered. Smooth.
"You won't believe what I saw on the news this morning! Apparently, two kids went missing in Moonsdale, which means the disappearances have started up again. The kidnappers signature mark, and upside down pentagram, was even found carved into both of the kids houses! But there's no way that the kidnapper would be young enough to keep doing stuff like this, unless they were your moms age when the kidnappings occurred, right? So it has to mean that they're some kind of supernatural entity!"
"Maybe," I said, apathy creeping into my tone, "Or maybe it was some kind of copycat killer. Or the original kidnapper trained his kid or someone to take over his place when they got old enough or something."
"Aw, you're no fun, Ryan!"
"So I've been told."
Alyssa giggles slightly at that, which causes my heart to melt. The warning bell rings right as I finish my food, and we both quickly rush off to class.
"So, see you at lunch?" I say as we reach her biology class.
"Yeah, see you at lunch."
We part ways and I reach Mr. Taylor's class. Surprisingly, James is already there, and he's talking enthusiastically about something to Gina.
"...but then Will posted on his snapchat a picture of him and Jenny at Joe's Doughnut Holes and captions it 'doughnuts aren't the only hole I'm getting tonight'. So Kevin gets pissed, and tells Will that if he lays a hand on her he'd- Oh hey man!"
"Hey Jim," I smile.
"You look like shit, Kylo. Did I wear you out last night?" he says in a suggestive tone.
Kylo. It's a stupid nickname he gave me in 6th when I started growing my hair out longer. He says it makes me look like Kylo Ren, but I really don't see it.
"Maybe if you hadn't kept me up until 4:00 I would look better."
James just wiggles his eyebrows at that and Gina laughs. I huff and mutter 'shut up', my face beat red. The tarty bell rings and Mr. Taylor walks in.
"Take your seat, class. We have a new student joining us today. Come on in, bud."
A nice looking, curly haired blond kid walks through the doors. He looks only about two inches taller than me (which I'm pissed about, by the way. Why can't I be taller than just one person???), and has pale green eyes. He quickly scans the room before his eyes land on us. He gives a soft smile in our direction, and James returns it while I put my head down.
"This is Amos Wood. Please be nice to him. Amos, would you like to say a few things about yourself?"
The kid, Amos, nods and turns to the class. "Hello, everyone. My name is Amos. My family just moved here from California to be closer to my Uncle. I really like soccer, history, and architecture, and my favorite colors are yellow and blue. I's nice to meet all of you!"
Wow, I thought, It's like he rehearsed this.
"That's very nice, Amos. There's an empty seat in front of both Ryan and Haley. Why don't you sit near one of them?"
I look over at the brunette when her name is mentioned. Haley is already making goo goo eyes at Amos, but he has other plans. The curly haired kid makes his way over to the seat just in front of me and next to James, dropping his stuff on it before taking a seat. He turns to face me as soon as his ass hits the chair.
"Hi! I'm Amos Wood, nice to meet you!" he says with a bright smile, extending his hand for me to shake.
"Uh, Ryan Benton, nice too meet you, too," I say awkwardly, taking his hand. He squeezed it, shaking my hand for a little to long, his smile just a little too wide, which made me nervous. When he finally released me I let out a breath that I didn't know I was holding.
"Hey man, my names James, and this is Gina! Nice to meet you!" James smiles. Amos reciprocates before turning to the front of the class, his textbook already open to the right page.
Well, this is weird. I hope he doesn't become a recurring character I think, focusing on my own textbook. This is going to be a long day.

I entered the cafeteria in a worse mood than I had at the beginning of the day. My second class isn't with any of my friends. Instead, I'm stuck sitting next to Meredith and Dylan for half an hour, being forced to watched them make out while my English teacher doesn't even try to intervene. Because, hey, it's Dylan Anderson. No one messes with Dylan. Honestly, I wouldn't be surprised if he was the one who kidnapped those kids from Moonsdale. Then I have art which, honestly, I'm not very good at. It's an easy A, though, and I'm in that class with Alyssa, so it's great. Probably the highlight of my day.
I head over to our table and set my stuff in between James and Ethan's, as always, before noticing a sixth set of books at the table. They're clean, new notebooks and binders, and everything seems color coded. I'm confused for a second before I see Amos Wood walking over to our table with a lunch tray. Oh, great. I have to deal with him for the rest of lunch. I already got my fill of Amos that morning. The goody two shoes kept sucking up to Mr. Taylor, even singing along to the music he played when we were doing a worksheet.
"Hello, Ryan. I hope you don't mind that I'm sitting here."
"You're fine, it's not like your taking someones seat," I inwardly cringe, cursing at myself for not being more popular or at least not packing my lunch so I could get away from this creep. Well, today they were serving the cheap, shitty pizza that's usually frozen solid, so I really don't regret packing today.
"Hey guys!" Ethan smiles, strolling up to our table with his tray and sitting down next to me, "What are we talking about?"
"Oh nothing," Amos smiles.
"I don't think we've properly been introduced. You're Amos, right? I'm Ethan. I heard from James that you like soccer! I'm actually on the soccer team here. You should check it out when you get the chance!" Ethan said, giving Amos a firm handshake.
"I'd love to! I used to play soccer all the time with my friends back in California. It's really what brought us all together. It'll be fun to play again!"
Maybe I was being a little too judgmental. Sure, Amos was a little strange and almost seemed a little too perfect, but he just transferred to a new high school in the middle of the year and had to leave all of his friends behind. I couldn't imagine what that was like. I had lived in Sunnyville my whole life. It must suck.
I only felt like that for a moment before Amos turned back to me with his too wide smile and his too perfect teeth. His green eyes glinted with something darker, and all of my sympathy for him zapped away in an instant, being once again replaced with suspicion.
He didn't hold my gaze long because, luckily, the others showed up. I spent the rest of the lunch period talking with my friends and trying my best to ignore Amos, who was in deep conversation with Ethan about soccer. Amos did occasionally pop into our conversation to say something funny, which actually made me laugh a bit. Sure, I didn't trust him, but maybe, just maybe I was being too harsh.

The rest of the school day went by in a blur. I vaguely remember Amos being in my Math class, but other than than, it was just a normal school day.
I got on the bus and sat in the back with my earbuds in. I looked up when someone sat down next to me. Surprisingly, it was Hannah. I was very confused. Hannah and I might be siblings, but she always sits with her friends on the bus. I was about to say something sarcastic when I saw her face.
Hannah was as pale as a sheet. Her eyes were wide, and her hair was messy. She seemed shaken up. My mood turned serious and I took out my earbuds.
"Um, are you okay?" I asked awkwardly, concerned for my little sister.
Hannah just shook her head in response, seeming too weak to say anything.
"What happened?" I questioned.
"I... I heard something. Something in the woods, beckoning me into them. I almost went. I was so close, but then I heard something else. I-it was a scream. Something was screaming in the woods, Ryan! But no one else heard it! It didn't stop screaming until last period! I couldn't think, I couldn't eat, I couldn't breath. I was so scared, Ryan!" she whispered, barely able to keep the quiver out of her voice as she spoke. I wrapped an arm around her and she clung to my jacked, letting out a few soft whimpers as she shook in my arms. This is nothing like how she usually acts. Hannah was bratty and rude most of the time, being our parents little girl and getting almost anything she wanted. But she had never cried before, unless she was throwing a temper tantrum. I didn't know what to do, so I just held her closer.
"It's going to be okay, alright? Why don't we watch some cartoons or something on my phone?"
Hannah nodded weakly, and I pulled it back out again, offering one earbud as we went to Disney +. We watched Star vs the forces of Evil until we got to our stop.
"Go lay down in your room while I get you something to eat. We still have leftover cupcakes from Dad's party last week, would you like that?" I asked gently. Hannah nodded, but looked terrified of being alone, so instead she stayed in the kitchen with me. I ended up taking my Nintendo Switch into her room and playing Pokemon next to her bed until she fell asleep. When I was sure she wasn't awake, I rushed downstairs and made dinner, then took a bath and changed into something more comfy.
I had just finished making our plates when I heard Hannah scream upstairs. I raced up there and into her room to find her curled up in a shaking ball on her bead. I quickly ran to her and wrapped my arms around her form as she leaned into my touch.
"It's okay, it's alright. I'm here. Just breath."
Hannah took a few shaky breaths to calm herself before turning to me. "I-I had a nightmare, and when I w-woke up, you weren't here and I panicked, I'm s-sorry."
"You don't need to apologize, I understand. You should go take a shower, okay? I have dinner downstairs and we can play Mario Kart until we fall asleep."
Hannah nodded and went to take her bath while I set up the TV. She came out about 20 minutes later looking a bit better. I gave her dinner, which was pancakes, and the two of us ate in silence while she put on another episode of SVTFOE.
We did exactly what I suggested and played Mario Kart for about four hours. She ended up falling asleep when I was selecting a new level, and I took her up to her room and tucked her in. That's when I decided to write this post. I should probably stop, though. The battery on my laptop is low and I'm pretty sure the light is disturbing Hannah. I'm currently sitting next to her bed in case she has another nightmare.
So yeah, my day wasn't too bad. I met a new guy and bonded with my sister a bit. Still, the day sucked like any other. Thanks for reading.
-Ryan
Intro: https://www.reddit.com/useTheAmazingRyan205/comments/ewwk5x/introduction/
submitted by TheAmazingRyan205 to u/TheAmazingRyan205 [link] [comments]


2019.11.13 19:49 bikingfencer Introductions to Proverbs

Proverbs  
Introductions from Fritsch and Clarke  
The Interpreter’s Bible, volume IV, Charles T. Fritsch  
The book of Proverbs belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. To this literary genre also belong Job, Ecclesiastes, and some of the psalms (e.g., [for example] 1; 19; 37; 49; 73; 112; 119; 127; 128; 133) in the Old Testament; Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon in the Apocrypha; and Pirke Aboth in later Judaism…  
-I. Wisdom Literature in the Ancient Near East  
Numerous contacts with the wisdom literature of other lands and with the men who produced it are mentioned in the Old Testament. Balaam son of Beor, who uttered the oracles found in Num. [Numbers] 23-24, ‘was really a north-Syrian diviner from the Euphrates Valley’ [Albright 1944]. In I Kings we read: ‘Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the people of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all other men, wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol…’ In this passage at least three extra-Israelitish sources of wisdom are mentioned: the Bedouin Arabs of the East, the land of Egypt, and the sons of Mahol, who were Edomite sages. The wisdom of Edom is again referred to in Jer. [Jeremiah] 49:7 and Obad. [Obadiah] 8. Job and his friends were of non-Israelite extraction, most of them coming from Edom. And the proper name ‘Massa’ in Prov. [Proverbs] 30:1; 31:1 may point to an Arabian milieu for those sections. Thus we can see that the Hebrews were familiar with the wisdom of Babylonia, Syria, Edom, Arabia, and Egypt.  
Not only were they familiar with these various wisdom literatures, but they actually borrowed quite extensively from them. It is now known that substantial parts of Proverbs are borrowed directly from Phoenician or Canaanite sources. Not only is the conception of hypostatized1 wisdom, found in Prov. 8-9, of Canaanite origin, but many phrases and words throughout the book can now be traced to Phoenician and especially Ugaritic sources.  
It has long been recognized that there are many close parallels between the wisdom literatures of Israel and Babylonia… The Babylonian wisdom literature consists mainly of the Babylonian Job, a title bestowed upon the work because of its close similarity with the Hebrew Job, The Babylonian Book of Proverbs, with its frequently recurring phrase, ‘my son,’ so common in certain sections of Hebrew Proverbs, and the Proverbs of Aḥikar, a part of the Story of Aḥikar, which ultimately came from Mesopotamia. Between Proverbs and these Babylonian sources W. O. E. Oesterley records over fifty parallels and similarities in thought and words.

Let your foot be seldom in your neighbor’s house,
lest he become weary of you and hate you (Prov. 25:17).  
My son, let not thy foot run after thy friend,
Lest he be surfeited with thee and hate thee (Aḥikar)…

… both sides drew from a common source and adapted the material to their own culture.  
There is much more extant Egyptian wisdom literature than Babylonian, and its influence on Hebrew wisdom literature is much stronger. By far the most important wisdom book from Egypt is The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, written some time after the eighth century B.C. Deuteronomy and Psalms have words and expressions in common with this, but it is in Proverbs that is influence is most strongly felt. …

Do not rob the poor, because he is poor,
or crush the afflicted at the gate (Prov. 22:22).  
Beware of robbing the poor
And of oppressing the afflicted (Amen-em-ope).

… when the Hebrews did utilize outside sources, they made them completely their own…  
-II. The Wise Men  
The cultural life of Israel was molded by three groups of leaders: the prophets, the priests, and the wise men (cf. [compare with] Jer. 18:18)… they were simply earnest seekers of the good life, and it was their aim to teach their disciples what that good life was.  
Their origin as a distinct class is probably to be associated with the scribes in governmental service. This was the case both in Egypt and Babylonia, where the wise men were state functionaries who were skilled in writing, the science of government, and the manners and morals of the day. In the Old Testament the scribes are mentioned several times as governmental officials. According to II Sam. [Samuel] 8:17, Seraiah the scribe is one of David’s important officers of state. Similar notices are recorded in II Sam… In II Kings 22:3-7 the scribe Shaphan is described as a kind of minister of finance, and in Jer. 36:20-21 it appears as though Elishama the scribe had charge of the state archives. In Jer. 8:8-9 the scribes and the wise men are actually equated…  
… The reference to ‘the wisdom of their wise men’ in Isa. [Isaiah] 29:14 shows that these men must have existed as a class long before the middle of the eighth century B.C. By the time of Jeremiah the ‘counsel’ of the wise was on a par the ‘law’ of the priest and the ‘word’ of the prophet (Jer. 18:18).  
Strangely enough, the first person with the distinctive title of ‘wise’ in the Old Testament is a woman from Tekoa, the home of the prophet Amos (II Sam. 14:1-20). Another wise woman is mentioned in the story recorded in II Sam. 20:14-22. King Solomon is, of course, the wise man par excellence among the Israelites…

It is almost impossible to understand how such encomiums could be heaped upon one who made so many foolish mistakes throughout his life in every realm….  
… the wise man… was a familiar figure in Israel’s life from the earliest times to the Maccabean period. We find two vivid pictures of these wise men in wisdom literature, one belonging to the earlier, the other to the later period when they had set up their schools and their teachings were firmly establish. This first one is found in Job 29:7-25…  
When the ear heard it, it called me blessed,
and when the eye saw it, it approved;
because I delivered the poor who cried,
and fatherless who had none to help him.  
The blessing of him who was about to perish came upon me,
And I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy.

The second picture, from Ecclus. [Ecclesiasticus] 39:1-11, is of a wise man who lived about 180 B.C. He was wise in the ways of the world, yet devout in his religious practices:  

He will travel though the lands of strange peoples,
And test what is good and what is evil among men.

The teaching of the wise men was directed to the youth of the nation. It was done orally in public places (Prov. 1:20-21) and privately to individuals… Perhaps Isa. 55:1 is a taunt of the prophet against the wise men for charging fees. The prophets, as we know from Isa. 29:14; Jer. 8:9, were not too kindly disposed toward the wise men. After the early period, when the wisdom of the sages was given forth at the city gate to those who would hear it, there arose places of instruction where the teacher would sit with his pupils and proclaim his wisdom. These were called the bêth hammidhrāsh, i.e., [in other words] ‘the house of instruction’ or ‘school,’ and the yeshîbhāh, i.e., the ‘scholar’s session,’ or ‘academy.’ There the students came to learn those maxims and principles which would guide them successfully through life. After the Maccabean struggle the purely ethical teachings of the wise men became less popular with the anti-Hellenistic religious leaders of the day, and so the wise men gradually disappeared from Jewish life. Many of their teachings and functions were carried on by the scribes of later Judaism.  
-III. Types of Hebrew Wisdom Literature  
A. Māshāl. - This word is usually translated ‘proverb,’ … but it has many other meanings, as its use in the Old Testament reveals. Its etymology and original meaning have not been definitely established. Most scholars hold the view that the root meaning is ‘to be like,’ from which the basic idea of ‘likeness,’ ‘comparison’ is derived for the noun…

Like vinegar to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes,
so is the sluggard to those who send him (Prov. 10:26)

As used in the Old Testament, māshāl has a variety of meanings. First of all it designates a popular proverbial saying… these short statements may have originally contained a comparison, but later on any short saying which contained a general popular truth came to be called a māshāl.

māshāl, as used in the title of Proverbs, means the ethical aphorism poem, and essay, the final and peerless product of the wise man’s consummate skill. Starting with the popular proverb as a pattern, the sages of Israel developed the finely polished, succinctly worded ethical proverb which predominates in this book. To test their abilities even further they composed intricate acrostic poems such as the one on the good wife in 31:10-31, or sublime philosophical essays, such as the one on wisdom in 8:22-31. The philosophical drama, as represented by Job, with its penetrating insights and breathless, panoramic outreaching of the heart and mind of man, is the literary zenith of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
-B. Riddle. - … The best example of the riddle is found in Judg. [Judges] 14:14:  
‘And he said to them,
“Out of the eater came something to eat.
Out of the strong came something sweet.”
And they could not in three days tell what the riddle was.’…  
-C. Fable. - The well-known fable of the trees recorded in Judg. 9:7-21, also belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. Another one is found in II Kings 14:9. To the parables already mentioned in Ezekiel should be added the parable of the prophet Nathan (II Sam. 12:1-6) and the one recorded in I Kings 20:39-40.  
-IV. Wisdom in the Old Testament  
-A. The Pragmatic and Religious Origins.- The usual Hebrew word for wisdom is hokhmāh, which seems to have the primary sense of ‘firm,’ ‘fixed,’ and then ‘something which controls or restrains.’ … It was that native intelligence or shrewdness by which man performed his tasks skillfully and well… It is applied to women who were professional wailers… And in Prov. 30:24-28 wisdom is ascribed even to small animals such as ants, conies, locusts, and lizards with their amazing instincts and prowess. Thus wisdom for the Hebrew was a pragmatic empirical thing, not speculative or philosophical… as Israel fell heir to the common, practical wisdom of the Near East, she used it in her own inimitable way, setting it in her own peculiar context which instinctively related it to God… Israel redeemed the pagan wisdom of her day and made it theocentric.

Wisdom is synonymous with moral and religious intelligence; it is filled with a strongly ethical content.  
This union of practical wisdom with moral intelligence is expressed by the familiar motto, ‘The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge’ (1:7… ps. [psalm] 111:10…)… wisdom became equated with the law, which was the highest expression of wisdom in later Judaism.

-B. The Personification of Wisdom. – Another interesting and widely significant development in the conception of wisdom was its personification and hypostatization. The Hebrew was fond of personifying the things he saw about him. For instance, the prophet says that  
The mountains and the hills before you
Shall break forth into singing,
And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands. (Isa. 55:12).  
This tendency to personify led the Hebrew to personalize abstract ideas and principles… The next step naturally was to regard wisdom as a distinct or separate personality or hypostasis.  
… The first glimmer of the personification of wisdom is found in Job 28.  
Whence then cometh wisdom?
And where is the place of understanding?
Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living,
And kept close from the birds of the heavens.
Destruction and Death say,
We have heard a rumor thereof with our ears.
...
In Proverbs … 1:20-21 wisdom is depicted as crying forth her words of invitation in the busy city marts:  
Wisdom cries aloud in the street;
in the markets she raises her voice;
On the top of the walls she cries out;
at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:
“How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple?
How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing
and fools hate knowledge?”

In chs. [chapters] 8-9 is reached the highest stage in the personification of wisdom in the canonical books… In vss. [verses] 22-31 wisdom is so distinctly personalized that it is well on the way to being hypostatized. She was brought forth before the world was, and was present at the Creation, watching and sporting before God as he did his work, “delighting in the sons of men” (8:31).  
In the apocryphal wisdom books the personification of wisdom is still further developed. …

And a spotless mirror of the activity of God,
And a likeness of his goodness.
Though she is one, she can do all things…

And the words of Wisd. Sol. [Wisdom of Solomon] 7:25-26 are so noble and sublime that the writer of Hebrews uses them almost verbatim to describe the wonder and beauty of our matchless Lord… This is the last stage in the hypostatization of wisdom. Even Philo goes no farther. Wisdom is now ready to take its place with the Spirit and Logos as a great intermediary power between God and man. But even beyond that, in Pauline theology, wisdom is identified with Christ, the only saving, divine wisdom through whom redemption can come into the world, as against the worldly wisdom of the Greeks. …  
-V. Date and Authorship  
In order to determine the date and authorship of Proverbs one must first of all consider the date and authorship of the individual collections of which it is composed. …  
… Section I (The Excellence of Wisdom, 1:1-9:18) … Most scholars hold a postexilic date for this part of the book, mainly because of the highly developed essay style, and the personification of wisdom… which they believe as due to Hellenistic influence. But it is now quite certain that chs. [chapters] 8-9 are one of the oldest parts of the book, since they are of undisputed Phoenician origin, while many words and grammatical peculiarities throughout the whole section point to strong Ugaritic and Phoenician influence. Therefore to ascribe a Solomonic origin to this collection may not have been as groundless as many have supposed…  
Section II (The Proverbs of Solomon, 10:1-22:16) is the core of the book. The 375 proverbs consist of two lines each, except 19:7… In chs. 10-15 they are mostly antithetic; in 16:1-22:16 only 33 out of 191 proverbs are antithetic. There seems to be no logical arrangement of the proverbs… Quite few verses and half verses are repeated in this collection, as the following list shows: 10:1=15:20…  
Section III (The Sayings of the Wise, 22:17-24:34) … Since certain of these proverbs show close affinity with the Egyptian wisdom book, The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, which was compiled somewhere between 800 and 600 B.C., the heart of this section can safely be regarded as pre-exilic in origin.  
Section IV (Second Collection of Solomon’s Proverbs, 25:1-29:27) … This collection is said to have been edited by the men of Hezekiah (25:1), a statement which is generally accepted as authentic… The collection may be dated near the end of the eighth century B.C.  
The authors of Sections V (The Words of Agur, 30:1-33), VI (The Words of Lemuel, 31:1-9), and VII (the Good Wife – an acrostic poem – 31:1-31) are unknown. Agur and Lemuel are non-Israelitish rulers, probably of the Arabian tribe of Massa, east of Palestine… They are generally considered to be postexilic…  
…Aramaisms may point to a later date for those proverbs in which they occur. The reference to the law and vision (prophecy) in 29:18… indicates a date long after Ezra for these verses. So that even though the bulk of the material in every section is pre-exilic, the final form of the book, as we know it, was not attained until some time after 400 B.C.  
-VI. Text and Style  
The Hebrew text of Proverbs is in fairly good condition. To be sure, there are errors, difficulties, and corruptions, but in comparison with books like I and II Samuel or Hosea, Proverbs has suffered little in the course of transmission. The most serious textual difficulties [are those in which] the Hebrew text is meaningless and emendations, as pointed out in the Exegesis, are purely conjectural. Then, too, there are individual words which defy explanation because they are entirely unknown or not understandable… These examples point to the remarkable persistence of the consonantal Hebrew text in the course of transmission, even though the words and sentences had long lost their meaning to the Jewish scribe.  
The aid of outside sources in determining the meaning of difficult or unknown words has been applied to Proverbs with marked success. Egyptian wisdom sources, for instance, have clarified the difficult shlshwm in 22:20… and Ugaritic material has already given the clue to the meaning of two expressions in 21:9 and 26:23… with the promise of more aid in the future.  
The Septuagint is the most valuable ancient version from the study of Proverbs. It must be used with caution, however, in correcting the Hebrew text, since its own text is impaired by corruptions and peculiar modes of translation… Many times the Hebrew is freely translated, revealing ignorance on the part of the translator of the Hebrew word or idiom, or an attempt to mold the material into the theological or philosophical position of the person or persons translating…  
Proverbs is written in poetic style. That is, each verse is characterized by the parallelism of its members, or stichs, and by a certain number of beats or accents – usually three or four – in those stichs. Paronomasia2 also plays an important role in the literary structure of the book. The couplet composed of two stichs, is the most common form of the proverb. The three main types of parallelism in Proverbs are;  
-1. Synonymous, in which the two stichs express the same idea in slightly different ways.  

Does not wisdom call,
Does not understanding raise her voice? (8:1.)  
-2. Antithetic, in which the truth of the first stich is contrastingly stated in the second:  

In the path of righteousness is life,
But the way of error leads to death (12:28).

-3. Synthetic, in which the second stich simply carries on the thought of the first, thus forming one whole sentence:  

If one gives answer before he hears,
it is his folly and shame (18:13).  
The most common meters in Proverbs are 4:3, 4:4, and 3:3, but these are naturally lost in the various translation of the Hebrew text.  
-VII. Teaching  
In Proverbs the teaching of the wise men has become respectably linked with the religion of Israel… They were not too closely united as yet, however, since we hear little about the ritual, the priest, the messianic hope, or the prophet throughout the book. It was not until 180 B.C. (date of Ecclesiasticus) that the Law, the supreme expression of religion, and wisdom were equated in Judaism.  
The object of the practical instruction given in these proverbs is not the Jewish nation or a special privileged class, but any individual, commonly called “my son,” who heeds wisdom’s call to listen to her words of advice. This individualistic, democratic approach is characteristic of all of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
The wise men, in dealing with the practical problems of everyday life, do not resort to creed or revelation for their knowledge, but to human experience in all its varied forms…  
Anyone who reads Proverbs is impressed with the high ethical standard of its teachings. The highest type of family life is extolled: monogamy is taken for granted; the respect for mother and wife is emphasized throughout; chastity and marital fidelity are enjoined for all. The glutton, drunkard, and sluggard, the robber and oppressor of the poor, are all roundly condemned. Those who live in accordance with wisdom’s laws are prosperous and happy. A belief in the one true and living God who rewards the righteous and punishes the wicked permeates the book from cover to cover.  
In spite of this high standard of ethics, however, it must be admitted that goodness is almost always motivated by personal interest or success. The high water marks of altruistic behavior, as found in 24:17; 25:21, are sadly marred by the following verse in each case:  
Do not rejoice when our enemy falls,
and let not your heart be glad when he stumbles;
lest the LORD see it, and be displeased,
and turn away his anger from him (24:17-18);
...
In the numerous warnings against illicit dealings with the strange woman, the man is told to abstain because he will be impoverished, or he will be physically weakened, or he will die prematurely. There is no comment on the sinfulness of the act, or on the degradation of the woman who encourages the act. He who is wise will conduct himself in such a way that he will live a long, happy, and prosperous life.  
The eschatology of Proverbs is similar to that of the rest of the Old Testament. Sheol is the dismal abode of the departed… According to 15:11… Sheol and Abaddon are said to be before the Lord; that is, he is in some way concerned with the underworld and its inhabitants. This is a foreshadowing of the more highly developed doctrine of later Judaism and Christianity that God has power over both heaven and hell. Then, too, one cannot help feeling that Sheol, as used in Proverbs, refers not just to death alone but to the death of one who has died in his sins before his time. In other words, Sheol seems to be taking on a moral aspect which it fully assumes when it becomes equivalent to hell at a later time.  
As to the end of man, Proverbs adds nothing to the general Old Testament idea. The good man receives his rewards of happiness, prosperity, and long life here on earth; the wicked man is punished by a premature or violent death; but in neither case does reward or punishment carry over into the next life (cf. 14:12; 15:24).  
**-VIII. Proverbs and the New Testament  
The quotations from Proverbs in the New Testament are few… They are usually taken from the Greek text of Proverbs rather than from the Hebrew.  

But love covereth all transgressions (Prov. 10:12b).
For love covereth a multitude of sins (I Pet. [Peter] 4:8b)

If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat;
And if he be thirsty, give him water to drink:
For thou will heap coals of fire upon his head,
And Jehovah will reward thee (Prov. 25:21-22).
But if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst,Give him to drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head (Rom. [Romans] 12:20, with LXX [the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible], except that the last line is omitted).

… there are many proverbs which are the basis of New Testament passages, but are not actually quoted…  
Christ links himself with the wisdom of the Old Testament when he says: “The queen of the South will arise at the judgment with the men of this generation and condemn them; for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, something greater than Solomon is here” (Luke 11:31; Matt. [Matthew] 12:42). Jesus is not just making a simple comparison, but rather is he saying that the wisdom of the Old Testament, so imperfectly manifested in the character and teachings of Solomon, is now perfectly revealed in the matchless life and words of him who is David’s greater son…  
That Proverbs is part of the Old Testament canon points to the fact that wisdom is the revelation of God’s orderly plan in the universe and in the lives of men, rather than merely the accumulation of intelligent observations on life down through the ages. When Jesus identifies himself with wisdom he also confirms this view and brings wisdom into the redemptive plan and purpose of God.” (Fritsch, 1955, pp. IV, 767-778)  
Adam Clarke The HOLY BIBLE… with a COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES  
… Solomon collected the major part of these proverbs from those who had preceded him, whether Hebrews or Heathens… whatever of truth is found in or among men, came originally from God…

… we find there is not an ancient nation on earth that is without its Code of Proverbs, or proverbial maxims. The ancient SANSCRIT is full of them; and they abound in the Persian and Arabic languages, and in all the dialects formed from these, in all the countries of the East. The HEETOPADESA of Vishnoo Sarma, the Anvari Soheily, the Bahar Danush, Kalila we Dumna, and all the other forms of that original work: the fables of Lockman, Æsop, Phœdrus, Avienus, &c [and etcetera], are collections of proverbs, illustrated by their application to the most important purposes of domestic, social, and civil life.  
The term PROVERB, proverbium, compounded of pro, for, and verbum, a word, speech, or saying, leads us to an original meaning of the thing itself. It was an allegorical saying, where more was meant than met the eye – a short saying that stood for a whole discourse, the words of which are metaphorical…  
MILLBROOK, December 2, 1822.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. III 471 &; 473)   FOOTNOTES   1 Hypostasize - to construe a conceptual entity as a really existing – Memidex.com
  2 Paronomasia is the rhetorical term for punning, playing with words. - grammar.about.com   An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2019.11.13 19:44 bikingfencer Proverbs - introductions

Proverbs  
Introductions from Fritsch and Clarke  
The Interpreter’s Bible, volume IV, Charles T. Fritsch  
The book of Proverbs belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. To this literary genre also belong Job, Ecclesiastes, and some of the psalms (e.g., [for example] 1; 19; 37; 49; 73; 112; 119; 127; 128; 133) in the Old Testament; Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon in the Apocrypha; and Pirke Aboth in later Judaism…  
-I. Wisdom Literature in the Ancient Near East  
Numerous contacts with the wisdom literature of other lands and with the men who produced it are mentioned in the Old Testament. Balaam son of Beor, who uttered the oracles found in Num. [Numbers] 23-24, ‘was really a north-Syrian diviner from the Euphrates Valley’ [Albright 1944]. In I Kings we read: ‘Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the people of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all other men, wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol…’ In this passage at least three extra-Israelitish sources of wisdom are mentioned: the Bedouin Arabs of the East, the land of Egypt, and the sons of Mahol, who were Edomite sages. The wisdom of Edom is again referred to in Jer. [Jeremiah] 49:7 and Obad. [Obadiah] 8. Job and his friends were of non-Israelite extraction, most of them coming from Edom. And the proper name ‘Massa’ in Prov. [Proverbs] 30:1; 31:1 may point to an Arabian milieu for those sections. Thus we can see that the Hebrews were familiar with the wisdom of Babylonia, Syria, Edom, Arabia, and Egypt.  
Not only were they familiar with these various wisdom literatures, but they actually borrowed quite extensively from them. It is now known that substantial parts of Proverbs are borrowed directly from Phoenician or Canaanite sources. Not only is the conception of hypostatized1 wisdom, found in Prov. 8-9, of Canaanite origin, but many phrases and words throughout the book can now be traced to Phoenician and especially Ugaritic sources.  
It has long been recognized that there are many close parallels between the wisdom literatures of Israel and Babylonia… The Babylonian wisdom literature consists mainly of the Babylonian Job, a title bestowed upon the work because of its close similarity with the Hebrew Job, The Babylonian Book of Proverbs, with its frequently recurring phrase, ‘my son,’ so common in certain sections of Hebrew Proverbs, and the Proverbs of Aḥikar, a part of the Story of Aḥikar, which ultimately came from Mesopotamia. Between Proverbs and these Babylonian sources W. O. E. Oesterley records over fifty parallels and similarities in thought and words.

Let your foot be seldom in your neighbor’s house,
lest he become weary of you and hate you (Prov. 25:17).  
My son, let not thy foot run after thy friend,
Lest he be surfeited with thee and hate thee (Aḥikar)…

… both sides drew from a common source and adapted the material to their own culture.  
There is much more extant Egyptian wisdom literature than Babylonian, and its influence on Hebrew wisdom literature is much stronger. By far the most important wisdom book from Egypt is The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, written some time after the eighth century B.C. Deuteronomy and Psalms have words and expressions in common with this, but it is in Proverbs that is influence is most strongly felt. …

Do not rob the poor, because he is poor,
or crush the afflicted at the gate (Prov. 22:22).  
Beware of robbing the poor
And of oppressing the afflicted (Amen-em-ope).

… when the Hebrews did utilize outside sources, they made them completely their own…  
-II. The Wise Men  
The cultural life of Israel was molded by three groups of leaders: the prophets, the priests, and the wise men (cf. [compare with] Jer. 18:18)… they were simply earnest seekers of the good life, and it was their aim to teach their disciples what that good life was.  
Their origin as a distinct class is probably to be associated with the scribes in governmental service. This was the case both in Egypt and Babylonia, where the wise men were state functionaries who were skilled in writing, the science of government, and the manners and morals of the day. In the Old Testament the scribes are mentioned several times as governmental officials. According to II Sam. [Samuel] 8:17, Seraiah the scribe is one of David’s important officers of state. Similar notices are recorded in II Sam… In II Kings 22:3-7 the scribe Shaphan is described as a kind of minister of finance, and in Jer. 36:20-21 it appears as though Elishama the scribe had charge of the state archives. In Jer. 8:8-9 the scribes and the wise men are actually equated…  
… The reference to ‘the wisdom of their wise men’ in Isa. [Isaiah] 29:14 shows that these men must have existed as a class long before the middle of the eighth century B.C. By the time of Jeremiah the ‘counsel’ of the wise was on a par the ‘law’ of the priest and the ‘word’ of the prophet (Jer. 18:18).  
Strangely enough, the first person with the distinctive title of ‘wise’ in the Old Testament is a woman from Tekoa, the home of the prophet Amos (II Sam. 14:1-20). Another wise woman is mentioned in the story recorded in II Sam. 20:14-22. King Solomon is, of course, the wise man par excellence among the Israelites…

It is almost impossible to understand how such encomiums could be heaped upon one who made so many foolish mistakes throughout his life in every realm….  
… the wise man… was a familiar figure in Israel’s life from the earliest times to the Maccabean period. We find two vivid pictures of these wise men in wisdom literature, one belonging to the earlier, the other to the later period when they had set up their schools and their teachings were firmly establish. This first one is found in Job 29:7-25…  
When the ear heard it, it called me blessed,
and when the eye saw it, it approved;
because I delivered the poor who cried,
and fatherless who had none to help him.  
The blessing of him who was about to perish came upon me,
And I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy.

The second picture, from Ecclus. [Ecclesiasticus] 39:1-11, is of a wise man who lived about 180 B.C. He was wise in the ways of the world, yet devout in his religious practices:  

He will travel though the lands of strange peoples,
And test what is good and what is evil among men.

The teaching of the wise men was directed to the youth of the nation. It was done orally in public places (Prov. 1:20-21) and privately to individuals… Perhaps Isa. 55:1 is a taunt of the prophet against the wise men for charging fees. The prophets, as we know from Isa. 29:14; Jer. 8:9, were not too kindly disposed toward the wise men. After the early period, when the wisdom of the sages was given forth at the city gate to those who would hear it, there arose places of instruction where the teacher would sit with his pupils and proclaim his wisdom. These were called the bêth hammidhrāsh, i.e., [in other words] ‘the house of instruction’ or ‘school,’ and the yeshîbhāh, i.e., the ‘scholar’s session,’ or ‘academy.’ There the students came to learn those maxims and principles which would guide them successfully through life. After the Maccabean struggle the purely ethical teachings of the wise men became less popular with the anti-Hellenistic religious leaders of the day, and so the wise men gradually disappeared from Jewish life. Many of their teachings and functions were carried on by the scribes of later Judaism.  
-III. Types of Hebrew Wisdom Literature  
A. Māshāl. - This word is usually translated ‘proverb,’ … but it has many other meanings, as its use in the Old Testament reveals. Its etymology and original meaning have not been definitely established. Most scholars hold the view that the root meaning is ‘to be like,’ from which the basic idea of ‘likeness,’ ‘comparison’ is derived for the noun…

Like vinegar to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes,
so is the sluggard to those who send him (Prov. 10:26)

As used in the Old Testament, māshāl has a variety of meanings. First of all it designates a popular proverbial saying… these short statements may have originally contained a comparison, but later on any short saying which contained a general popular truth came to be called a māshāl.

māshāl, as used in the title of Proverbs, means the ethical aphorism poem, and essay, the final and peerless product of the wise man’s consummate skill. Starting with the popular proverb as a pattern, the sages of Israel developed the finely polished, succinctly worded ethical proverb which predominates in this book. To test their abilities even further they composed intricate acrostic poems such as the one on the good wife in 31:10-31, or sublime philosophical essays, such as the one on wisdom in 8:22-31. The philosophical drama, as represented by Job, with its penetrating insights and breathless, panoramic outreaching of the heart and mind of man, is the literary zenith of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
-B. Riddle. - … The best example of the riddle is found in Judg. [Judges] 14:14:  
‘And he said to them,
“Out of the eater came something to eat.
Out of the strong came something sweet.”
And they could not in three days tell what the riddle was.’…  
-C. Fable. - The well-known fable of the trees recorded in Judg. 9:7-21, also belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. Another one is found in II Kings 14:9. To the parables already mentioned in Ezekiel should be added the parable of the prophet Nathan (II Sam. 12:1-6) and the one recorded in I Kings 20:39-40.  
-IV. Wisdom in the Old Testament  
-A. The Pragmatic and Religious Origins.- The usual Hebrew word for wisdom is hokhmāh, which seems to have the primary sense of ‘firm,’ ‘fixed,’ and then ‘something which controls or restrains.’ … It was that native intelligence or shrewdness by which man performed his tasks skillfully and well… It is applied to women who were professional wailers… And in Prov. 30:24-28 wisdom is ascribed even to small animals such as ants, conies, locusts, and lizards with their amazing instincts and prowess. Thus wisdom for the Hebrew was a pragmatic empirical thing, not speculative or philosophical… as Israel fell heir to the common, practical wisdom of the Near East, she used it in her own inimitable way, setting it in her own peculiar context which instinctively related it to God… Israel redeemed the pagan wisdom of her day and made it theocentric.

Wisdom is synonymous with moral and religious intelligence; it is filled with a strongly ethical content.  
This union of practical wisdom with moral intelligence is expressed by the familiar motto, ‘The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge’ (1:7… ps. [psalm] 111:10…)… wisdom became equated with the law, which was the highest expression of wisdom in later Judaism.

-B. The Personification of Wisdom. – Another interesting and widely significant development in the conception of wisdom was its personification and hypostatization. The Hebrew was fond of personifying the things he saw about him. For instance, the prophet says that  
The mountains and the hills before you
Shall break forth into singing,
And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands. (Isa. 55:12).  
This tendency to personify led the Hebrew to personalize abstract ideas and principles… The next step naturally was to regard wisdom as a distinct or separate personality or hypostasis.  
… The first glimmer of the personification of wisdom is found in Job 28.  
Whence then cometh wisdom?
And where is the place of understanding?
Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living,
And kept close from the birds of the heavens.
Destruction and Death say,
We have heard a rumor thereof with our ears.
...
In Proverbs … 1:20-21 wisdom is depicted as crying forth her words of invitation in the busy city marts:  
Wisdom cries aloud in the street;
in the markets she raises her voice;
On the top of the walls she cries out;
at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:
“How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple?
How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing
and fools hate knowledge?”

In chs. [chapters] 8-9 is reached the highest stage in the personification of wisdom in the canonical books… In vss. [verses] 22-31 wisdom is so distinctly personalized that it is well on the way to being hypostatized. She was brought forth before the world was, and was present at the Creation, watching and sporting before God as he did his work, “delighting in the sons of men” (8:31).  
In the apocryphal wisdom books the personification of wisdom is still further developed. …

And a spotless mirror of the activity of God,
And a likeness of his goodness.
Though she is one, she can do all things…

And the words of Wisd. Sol. [Wisdom of Solomon] 7:25-26 are so noble and sublime that the writer of Hebrews uses them almost verbatim to describe the wonder and beauty of our matchless Lord… This is the last stage in the hypostatization of wisdom. Even Philo goes no farther. Wisdom is now ready to take its place with the Spirit and Logos as a great intermediary power between God and man. But even beyond that, in Pauline theology, wisdom is identified with Christ, the only saving, divine wisdom through whom redemption can come into the world, as against the worldly wisdom of the Greeks. …  
-V. Date and Authorship  
In order to determine the date and authorship of Proverbs one must first of all consider the date and authorship of the individual collections of which it is composed. …  
… Section I (The Excellence of Wisdom, 1:1-9:18) … Most scholars hold a postexilic date for this part of the book, mainly because of the highly developed essay style, and the personification of wisdom… which they believe as due to Hellenistic influence. But it is now quite certain that chs. [chapters] 8-9 are one of the oldest parts of the book, since they are of undisputed Phoenician origin, while many words and grammatical peculiarities throughout the whole section point to strong Ugaritic and Phoenician influence. Therefore to ascribe a Solomonic origin to this collection may not have been as groundless as many have supposed…  
Section II (The Proverbs of Solomon, 10:1-22:16) is the core of the book. The 375 proverbs consist of two lines each, except 19:7… In chs. 10-15 they are mostly antithetic; in 16:1-22:16 only 33 out of 191 proverbs are antithetic. There seems to be no logical arrangement of the proverbs… Quite few verses and half verses are repeated in this collection, as the following list shows: 10:1=15:20…  
Section III (The Sayings of the Wise, 22:17-24:34) … Since certain of these proverbs show close affinity with the Egyptian wisdom book, The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, which was compiled somewhere between 800 and 600 B.C., the heart of this section can safely be regarded as pre-exilic in origin.  
Section IV (Second Collection of Solomon’s Proverbs, 25:1-29:27) … This collection is said to have been edited by the men of Hezekiah (25:1), a statement which is generally accepted as authentic… The collection may be dated near the end of the eighth century B.C.  
The authors of Sections V (The Words of Agur, 30:1-33), VI (The Words of Lemuel, 31:1-9), and VII (the Good Wife – an acrostic poem – 31:1-31) are unknown. Agur and Lemuel are non-Israelitish rulers, probably of the Arabian tribe of Massa, east of Palestine… They are generally considered to be postexilic…  
…Aramaisms may point to a later date for those proverbs in which they occur. The reference to the law and vision (prophecy) in 29:18… indicates a date long after Ezra for these verses. So that even though the bulk of the material in every section is pre-exilic, the final form of the book, as we know it, was not attained until some time after 400 B.C.  
-VI. Text and Style  
The Hebrew text of Proverbs is in fairly good condition. To be sure, there are errors, difficulties, and corruptions, but in comparison with books like I and II Samuel or Hosea, Proverbs has suffered little in the course of transmission. The most serious textual difficulties [are those in which] the Hebrew text is meaningless and emendations, as pointed out in the Exegesis, are purely conjectural. Then, too, there are individual words which defy explanation because they are entirely unknown or not understandable… These examples point to the remarkable persistence of the consonantal Hebrew text in the course of transmission, even though the words and sentences had long lost their meaning to the Jewish scribe.  
The aid of outside sources in determining the meaning of difficult or unknown words has been applied to Proverbs with marked success. Egyptian wisdom sources, for instance, have clarified the difficult shlshwm in 22:20… and Ugaritic material has already given the clue to the meaning of two expressions in 21:9 and 26:23… with the promise of more aid in the future.  
The Septuagint is the most valuable ancient version from the study of Proverbs. It must be used with caution, however, in correcting the Hebrew text, since its own text is impaired by corruptions and peculiar modes of translation… Many times the Hebrew is freely translated, revealing ignorance on the part of the translator of the Hebrew word or idiom, or an attempt to mold the material into the theological or philosophical position of the person or persons translating…  
Proverbs is written in poetic style. That is, each verse is characterized by the parallelism of its members, or stichs, and by a certain number of beats or accents – usually three or four – in those stichs. Paronomasia2 also plays an important role in the literary structure of the book. The couplet composed of two stichs, is the most common form of the proverb. The three main types of parallelism in Proverbs are;  
-1. Synonymous, in which the two stichs express the same idea in slightly different ways.  

Does not wisdom call,
Does not understanding raise her voice? (8:1.)  
-2. Antithetic, in which the truth of the first stich is contrastingly stated in the second:  

In the path of righteousness is life,
But the way of error leads to death (12:28).

-3. Synthetic, in which the second stich simply carries on the thought of the first, thus forming one whole sentence:  

If one gives answer before he hears,
it is his folly and shame (18:13).  
The most common meters in Proverbs are 4:3, 4:4, and 3:3, but these are naturally lost in the various translation of the Hebrew text.  
-VII. Teaching  
In Proverbs the teaching of the wise men has become respectably linked with the religion of Israel… They were not too closely united as yet, however, since we hear little about the ritual, the priest, the messianic hope, or the prophet throughout the book. It was not until 180 B.C. (date of Ecclesiasticus) that the Law, the supreme expression of religion, and wisdom were equated in Judaism.  
The object of the practical instruction given in these proverbs is not the Jewish nation or a special privileged class, but any individual, commonly called “my son,” who heeds wisdom’s call to listen to her words of advice. This individualistic, democratic approach is characteristic of all of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
The wise men, in dealing with the practical problems of everyday life, do not resort to creed or revelation for their knowledge, but to human experience in all its varied forms…  
Anyone who reads Proverbs is impressed with the high ethical standard of its teachings. The highest type of family life is extolled: monogamy is taken for granted; the respect for mother and wife is emphasized throughout; chastity and marital fidelity are enjoined for all. The glutton, drunkard, and sluggard, the robber and oppressor of the poor, are all roundly condemned. Those who live in accordance with wisdom’s laws are prosperous and happy. A belief in the one true and living God who rewards the righteous and punishes the wicked permeates the book from cover to cover.  
In spite of this high standard of ethics, however, it must be admitted that goodness is almost always motivated by personal interest or success. The high water marks of altruistic behavior, as found in 24:17; 25:21, are sadly marred by the following verse in each case:  
Do not rejoice when our enemy falls,
and let not your heart be glad when he stumbles;
lest the LORD see it, and be displeased,
and turn away his anger from him (24:17-18);
...
In the numerous warnings against illicit dealings with the strange woman, the man is told to abstain because he will be impoverished, or he will be physically weakened, or he will die prematurely. There is no comment on the sinfulness of the act, or on the degradation of the woman who encourages the act. He who is wise will conduct himself in such a way that he will live a long, happy, and prosperous life.  
The eschatology of Proverbs is similar to that of the rest of the Old Testament. Sheol is the dismal abode of the departed… According to 15:11… Sheol and Abaddon are said to be before the Lord; that is, he is in some way concerned with the underworld and its inhabitants. This is a foreshadowing of the more highly developed doctrine of later Judaism and Christianity that God has power over both heaven and hell. Then, too, one cannot help feeling that Sheol, as used in Proverbs, refers not just to death alone but to the death of one who has died in his sins before his time. In other words, Sheol seems to be taking on a moral aspect which it fully assumes when it becomes equivalent to hell at a later time.  
As to the end of man, Proverbs adds nothing to the general Old Testament idea. The good man receives his rewards of happiness, prosperity, and long life here on earth; the wicked man is punished by a premature or violent death; but in neither case does reward or punishment carry over into the next life (cf. 14:12; 15:24).  
**-VIII. Proverbs and the New Testament  
The quotations from Proverbs in the New Testament are few… They are usually taken from the Greek text of Proverbs rather than from the Hebrew.  

But love covereth all transgressions (Prov. 10:12b).
For love covereth a multitude of sins (I Pet. [Peter] 4:8b)

If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat;
And if he be thirsty, give him water to drink:
For thou will heap coals of fire upon his head,
And Jehovah will reward thee (Prov. 25:21-22).
But if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst,Give him to drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head (Rom. [Romans] 12:20, with LXX [the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible], except that the last line is omitted).

… there are many proverbs which are the basis of New Testament passages, but are not actually quoted…  
Christ links himself with the wisdom of the Old Testament when he says: “The queen of the South will arise at the judgment with the men of this generation and condemn them; for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, something greater than Solomon is here” (Luke 11:31; Matt. [Matthew] 12:42). Jesus is not just making a simple comparison, but rather is he saying that the wisdom of the Old Testament, so imperfectly manifested in the character and teachings of Solomon, is now perfectly revealed in the matchless life and words of him who is David’s greater son…  
That Proverbs is part of the Old Testament canon points to the fact that wisdom is the revelation of God’s orderly plan in the universe and in the lives of men, rather than merely the accumulation of intelligent observations on life down through the ages. When Jesus identifies himself with wisdom he also confirms this view and brings wisdom into the redemptive plan and purpose of God.” (Fritsch, 1955, pp. IV, 767-778)  
Adam Clarke The HOLY BIBLE… with a COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES  
… Solomon collected the major part of these proverbs from those who had preceded him, whether Hebrews or Heathens… whatever of truth is found in or among men, came originally from God…

… we find there is not an ancient nation on earth that is without its Code of Proverbs, or proverbial maxims. The ancient SANSCRIT is full of them; and they abound in the Persian and Arabic languages, and in all the dialects formed from these, in all the countries of the East. The HEETOPADESA of Vishnoo Sarma, the Anvari Soheily, the Bahar Danush, Kalila we Dumna, and all the other forms of that original work: the fables of Lockman, Æsop, Phœdrus, Avienus, &c [and etcetera], are collections of proverbs, illustrated by their application to the most important purposes of domestic, social, and civil life.  
The term PROVERB, proverbium, compounded of pro, for, and verbum, a word, speech, or saying, leads us to an original meaning of the thing itself. It was an allegorical saying, where more was meant than met the eye – a short saying that stood for a whole discourse, the words of which are metaphorical…  
MILLBROOK, December 2, 1822.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. III 471 &; 473)   FOOTNOTES   1 Hypostasize - to construe a conceptual entity as a really existing – Memidex.com
  2 Paronomasia is the rhetorical term for punning, playing with words. - grammar.about.com   An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2019.08.25 01:22 bikingfencer Job 40 - Behemoth and Leviathan

Chapter Forty  
“In chaps. [chapters] 40-41, the chapter divisions (established in the 13th cent. [century] AD) and the verse numeration (16th cent.) are unhappily varied and may cause confusion in references. Our commentary uses the numeration of the Hebr [Hebrew] text, as followed by the NAB [New American Bible].” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 487)  
-1. And responded, YHVH, to [את, ’ehTh] ’eeYOB [Job] and he said,  
“The introduction (40:1), which interrupts Yahweh’s speech, creates a difficulty. Like similar anomalies in 27:1 … and 29:1, and the repetition in 40:6-7, it may be a sign of textual disorder… In any case, the Lord begins again in a second speech (40:6-41:34).” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 487)  
-2. “The contender with ShahDa-eeY ["My Breasts", the nurturing aspect of God];
returner [יסור, YeeÇOR] [of] argument [מוכיח, MOKheeYaKh],
[to] ’eLOHah [God] will respond.”  
Shall a faultfinder contend with the Almighty? This translation is based upon the Masoretic pointing which understands the word רב (rôbh) as an infinitive absolute of the verb ריב [ReeYB], ‘to contend,’ and the hapax legomoenon [unique occurrence of] יסור (yiṣṣôr) as a noun derived from the verb יסר [YaÇaR], meaning ‘to yield,’ ‘to cease,’ ‘to desist’ (cf. [compare with] Isa. [Isaiah]11:13; Amos 6:7): thus one obtains a perfect parallelism of grammatical construction between vs. [verse] 2a and vs. 2b, as follows: ‘Will he who disputes with the Almighty yield? Will he who reproves God answer these things?’” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1182)  
-3. And responded, ’eeYOB, to [את, ’ehTh] YHVH and he said,  
-4. “Lo, I am a lightweight [קלתי QaLohThiY],
what can I return to you?
My hand I put to my mouth.
-5. Once I spoke, and I will not respond,
and twice, and I will not continue.  
Behold, I am of small account (vs. 4a; קלתי, ‘I am light, insignificant)… Job slowly discovers his proper place in the universe… His religion is undergoing a process of purification as little by little he abandons the position of paganism (idolatry of the self) and moves toward the new realm of authentic monotheism. He is gradually passing from an egocentric to a theocentric view of the world and of existence. He is not ready, however, to proceed from a confession of insignificance to a confession of repentance, because he has not yet grasped in its full import his confrontation with God (42:5-6). … His silence, however, is not one of dumbness. He could speak, but he refrains… The poet admirably succeeds in suggesting that humility does not come easily to a man of Job’s caliber, buffeted by pain and unbowed by the most horrible series of physical and mental tortures. If this exegesis is correct, the presence of a second discourse of Yahweh is quite justified.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1183)  
“… at least, the presence of God from which he had prayed to escape, a presence manifested only by successive blows of calamity and suffering, has changed to a speaking presence, in which Job knows God as addressing him personally and concerned with him as his servant.” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 487)  
 
“SECOND DISCOURSE OF YAHWEH (40:6-42:6)  
“Here we have two very different sections. The speech in 40:8-14 is in the same style as the first speech: ironic questions and invitations addressed to Job, which make evident to the point of absurdity his human inability to ‘be like God.’… Only in 40:15, 25-32 is the style of address and questioning maintained, but even here (and more so in the rest) the tone is didactic and objective; the urgency and challenge of chaps. 38-39 are missing.” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 487)  
“Most modern commentators maintain that the second discourse of Yahweh on Behemoth (40:15-24) and Leviathan (41:1-34) represents a series of later additions, or at any rate is displaced from its original location at the end of the procession of animals (39:30). They argue that … Yahweh’s purpose is already achieved when Job submits (40:3-5)… Yahweh’s renewal of the challenge (40:6-14) is superfluous or even ‘comes perilously near nagging’ (Peake, Job, p. 332)…the development on Behemoth and Leviathan… are poetically inferior to those which precede and written in a different style, thus betraying a separate hand… Yahweh introduces the question of Job’s attacks on divine righteousness (40:8), but in his final answer (42:1-6) Job ignores this question completely and refers only to the might of the Deity…the final confession of Job (42:1-6) is obviously an integral continuation of the first (40:4-5).  
“While it is probable that the developments on Behemoth and Leviathan have been expanded by another poet, and it is possible that various alterations and transpositions have been imposed on the early forms of the MS [manuscript], the fact remains that the order of the present text revels rhetorical skill, psychological perspicacity [perceptiveness1 ]], and theological discernment… Yahweh’s purpose is not achieved when Job submits, because submission … does not mean repentance… consequently, Yahweh’s renewal of the challenge is not superfluous: it is made necessary by the purely negative character of Job’s acceptance of silence… the developments on Behemoth and Leviathan do not constitute merely a continuation of the gallery of animals, but introduce a new meditation on the nature and activity of God, with the help of mythical motifs… the differences of style and poetic ability may easily derive from the difference of subjects, and in any case literary heterogeneity – if demonstrated – is not at this point of direct relevance for the correctness of interpretation, since the exegete must ultimately deal with the book of Job as a finished product of the Joban school… the fact that Job ignores Yahweh’s question concerning divine righteousness is of no significance, since the hero in his final answer stands no longer on the level of intellectual discussion… Job’s last confession is of course an integral continuation of the first but it cannot take place at once: it needs a slow maturing which can occur only during a second discourse of Yahweh, and presumably under its impact. Thus, in addition to dramatic suspense, the separation of Job’s response in two different moments suggests a depth of anguish and a breadth of bewilderment which could not otherwise be communicated to the hearer or reader, and – a most important point – implies that the spiritual phenomenon of repentance includes not only a negative act of silent submission but also a positive recognition of the presence of God; not only an avowal of guilt but also a commitment to the will of God and a dedication to his serve (cf. mutatis mutandis [(“[with the things] to be changed having been changed”)] the medieval distinction between attrition and contrition).” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1183-1184)  
 
Revelations of [the] strength of the Name  
-6. And responded, YHVH, to [את, ’ehTh] ’eeYOB, from [the] storm [סערה, Çah`ahRaH], and he said,  
-7. “Gird, if you please, like a brave, your loins;
I will ask of you and you make known to me.  
Gird up thy loins] … Some think that this and the preceding verse have been repeated here from chap. [chapter] xxxvii. 1-3, and that several of the words there, here, and chap. xlii. 3. have been repeated, in after times, to connect some false gatherings of the sheets of parchment on which the end of this poem was originally written…” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 875)  
-8. “Would you even violate [תפר, ThahPhayR] my justice,
condemn me that you may be made righteous?  
Wilt thou also disannul my judgment? Vs. 8a… Job indeed has not only asserted his innocence, he has also denied the righteousness of God (9:22; etc.). … the next question will shift the argument from the plane of an academic query to the reality of an existential blow which will strike at the hero’s spirit rather than at his mind. Wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be righteous? (Vs. 8b) The drama is reaching its theological apex. Job, the paragon of virtue and the example of morality, had expected to receive from God his due. When frustrated, and in all appearances condemned in the eyes of his fellow men and in his own, the alternative left him was either to confess that he had no claim upon God’s bounty or to declare God to be wrong in order to maintain his own self-righteousness. Thus the poet again and most eloquently exposes the sin of Job – not a sin of the horizontal type produced by ethical crimes directed against men, but a sin of the vertical type by which a creature dares to pass judgment upon his God and to indict his Creator… God’s further questioning is therefore infinitely sad, but his irony is not devoid of love and it half reveals compassion.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1185)  
-9. “And if an arm like ‘ayL [God] is to you,
and in a voice like his you thunder [תרעם, ThahR`ayM],
-10. deck [yourself], if you please, [in] majesty [גאון, Gah’ON] and exaltation [וגבה, VahGoBaH],
and [in] glory [והוד, VeHOD] and splendor [והדר, VeHahDaR] dress,
-11. cast [הפץ, HahPhayTs] abroad [עברות, `ahBROTh] your fury,
and see all arrogance [גאה, Gay’eH] and abase it [והשפילהו, VeHahShPeeYLayHOo],
-12. (see all arrogance, subdue it [הכניעהו, HahKhNeeY`ayHOo]),
and tread [והדך, VeHahDoKh] [the] wicked under them,
-13. hide them [טמנם, TahMNayM] in dust together,
their faces bind [חבש, HahBoSh] in hiding,  
Bind their faces in secret.] This seems to refer to the custom of preserving mummies…” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 875)  
-14. “and also I will praise you,
for your right [hand] saves you.  
“‘Then, I, myself, shall praise thee’ (אודך [‘OhDKha, “praise you”]) …thine own right hand can save thee (vs. 14; cf. Ps. [Psalm] 98:1)… a verse which may be considered as the pivot of the book, echoing the question of the Satan (1:9) and preparing the response of the hero (42:6)…Man is aping God whenever he attempts to save himself, i.e. [in other words], whenever he tries to be a man without God (cf. 3:5; cf. also Mark 14:31), the master of his own destiny, the author and fulfiller of his own salvation… The expression אודך ‘I would praise thee,’ is a technical term used in the cultic act by men who sing to God their gratitude (cf. Pss. [Psalms] 18:49; 30:9; etc.). The fact that the poet does not hesitate to lend it to God himself addressing a man provides the final touch of irony. The human hero is indeed offered by God the place of God! ‘The doubter is supposed to … draw the sword of justice, bathe it in the blood of all the wicked. He makes a solitude and calls it peace. He vindicates justice by emptying the world. It is now time for God to raise a paean, either as the ancients did, ‘Euge! macte virtute! [“Joy! More power!”]’ or as the moderns do, ‘See, the conquering hero comes!’… (James Strahan…1913).” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1186)  
 
“BEHEMOTH (40:15-24)  
“As Job replies nothing, Yahweh continues, according to the present text, with the description of Behemoth. In all probability this section… has been added to the original text by a wise man of the Joban school who interpreted Leviathan (41:1-34) as a crocodile of mythical proportion and thought that its Egyptian counterpart the mythical hippopotamus, was unfortunately absent. Both figures are found side by side or fighting together on many frescoes of the Ancient Egyptian Empire… and even on the late tomb of Petosiris. The Behemoth passage is not written in the style of questions as is the first discourse of Yahweh (38:2-40:5) or the section on Leviathan (41:1-34). It will be observed also that vs. 19 refers to ‘God’ in the third person – a strange procedure in the mouth of Yahweh.  
Behemoth… has been identified with the hippopotamus, an animal of the Nile Valley, unknown in the western part of Asia Anterior. However, the poet had in mind a creature of mythical significance, not a mere representative of an animal species… although he conceived it largely according to a stylized image of the hippopotamus which he may well have obtained de visu [“by seeing”]. It has been maintained by some that the word Behemoth is a loan word from the Egyptian pe-e-mu, ‘water horse’ (?), but the Hebrew בהמות can be explained simply as a plural of majesty of בהמה [BeHeMaH], ‘quadruped,’ meaning ‘the animal colossus par excellence’ (cf. Ps. 73:22).” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1186-1187)  
-15. “Behold, if you please, BeHayMOTh, which I made with you,  
“The word בהמות behemoth, is the plural of בהמה behemah, which signifies cattle in general, or gramnivorous animals, as distinguished from חיתו chayeto, all wild or carnivorous animals…” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 875)  
“… but one creature is certainly meant…” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 488)  
“The monster in question is a creature of Yahweh, like Job … and the poet’s insistence upon this point may betray some polemical intent: not even a primeval beast… originates outside of the creative act of God.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1187)  
“grass [חציר, HahTseeR], like an ox, it eats.  
-16. Behold, if you please, its strength in its loins,
and its power [ואנו, Ve’oNO] in [the] muscles of its belly.
-17. It stiffens [יחפץ, YahHPoTs] like a cedar its tail,
sinews of its thigh entwined [ישרגו, YeSoRahGOo].  
“The description stresses the sexual vigor of the giant (vs. 16 and probably also vs. 17ab; the word in the dual פכדו [PaHDOh], thighs [qere, marginal note] is euphemistic… (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1187)  
“Read probably ‘he stiffens his penis like a cedar-beam, the sinews of his testicles are closely knit.” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 488)  
-18. “Its bones are tubes [אפיקי, ’ahPheeYQaY] of brass,
its body [גרמיו GRaMahYV] like bars [כמטיל, KeeMTeeYL] [of] iron.  
-19. He is [the] first of [the] ways of ‘ayL,  
“The same phrase is used of this creature as is applied to Wisdom in Prov [Proverbs] 8:22…” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 488)  
“the maker of him [העשו, Hah`oSO], bring his sword.  
“Behemoth is not an animal similar to those of the first discourse but a unique monster, the chief of the ways of God (… cf. Gen. [Genesis] 49:3; Prov. 8:22… the text of vs. 19b is corrupt beyond recognition).” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1187)  
-20. “For produce [בול, BOoL] of mountains are borne to him,
and every animal of the field plays there.  
-21. Beneath acacias [צאלים, Tseh’ehLeeYM] he lays,
in secret cane and marsh [ובצה, OoBTsaH];
-22. screen him [יסכהו, YeÇooKooHOo] acacias, his shade,
surround him willows of river.  
Figure 2 Las Acacias - Posada de Campo  
-23. Lo, a turbulent [יעשק, Yah`ahSoQ] river; he is not alarmed [יחפוז, YahHPOZ],
he is secure if [כי, KeeY] [the] YaRDayN [“Descender’, Jordan] bursts unto his mouth.  
-24. In his eyes he caught,
in snares is perforated [his] nose.  
“… the whole verse is doubtful.” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 488)  
“It is not a mere hippopotamus, for, although some details suggest an Egyptian habitat… others point to a different geographical location… Moreover, the Egyptians did capture the hippopotamus… whereas Behemoth eludes human hunt (vs. 24); the RSV [Revised Standard Version] wrongly paraphrases the Hebrew in his eyes [“Can one take him with hooks or pierce his nose with a snare?”] which refers to a method used for the seizure not of the hippopotamus but of the crocodile (the blinding of the animal’s eyes with clay; Herodotus History[2]…); also, instead of במוקשים [BeMOQSheeYM] (plural), with a snare (singular, a meaning which obviously does not fit the context pierce his nose), read בקמושים [BeQahMOShiYM], ‘with thorns’ or ‘with harpoons.’” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1187-1188)  
 
[LEVIATHAN]  
“As noted above… the second discourse of Yahweh in its original form probably passed from the unanswered challenge (40d:6-14) directly to the questions on Leviathan (41:1-34 …[Hebrew 40:25-41:26])…  
Leviathan is different from an ordinary crocodile because it is a sea monster which cannot be captured (vss. 1 [25 in versions] ff [and following] …), produces eclipses (3:8; cf. 26:13), and is associated with the forces of the primeval chaos (Ps. 74:14; Enoch 60:7-9; II Baruch 29:4; II Esdras 6:49-52). Like the whole of mankind, Job is totally impotent before it… Each line of humorous interrogation leads to the final questions which give meaning to the whole passage (vss. 10-11 [41:2-3]).” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1188)  
-25. [41:1 in versions] “Draw LeeVYahThan [Leviathan] in hook [בחכה, BeHahKaH]
and by rope [ובחבל, OoBeHehBehL] set down his tongue.  
Or his tongue with a cord] Thevenot says that, in order to take the crocodile, they dig holes on the banks of the river, and cover them with sticks. The crocodiles fall into these, and cannot get out… and then [they] let down nooses which they pitch on their jaws, and thus draw them out. This probably what is meant here.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, pp. II 878-879)  
-26. [2.] “Can you put a ring [אגמונ ‘ahGMON] in his nose
and with a thorn penetrate [תקוב TheeQOB] his jaw?  
“Some have thought that this means, Canst thou deal with him as with one of those little fish which thou stringest on a rush by means of the thorn at its end?” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 879)  
-27. [3.] “Are multiplied unto you supplications,
if he speaks unto you pleasantries [רכות, RahKOTh]?
-28. [4.] Will he cut a covenant with you,
will you take him to slave eternal [עולם, `OLahM]?  
-29. [5.] Will you play in him like a bird,
and join him to your maidens;
-30. [6.] prepare a banquet upon him, friends,
halve him between merchants?  
Shall thy companions make a banquet] Canst thou and thy friends feast on him…? Or, Canst thou dispose of his flesh to the merchants…?” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 879)  
-31. [7.] “Will you fill in harpoons [בשכות, BeSooKOTh] his hide [עורו, `ORO],
and with a fish-gaff [ובצלצל, OoBeTseeLTsahL] his head,
-32. [8.] put upon him your palms?  
Remember war,
do not continue [תוסף, ThOÇahPh].”  
FOOTNOTES  
1 I am the future reader, and probably won’t remember the definition of perspicacity  
2 Herodotus: “They take the back or chine of a swine, and bait a hook with it, and throw it into the midst of the river; and the fisherman stands at some distance on the shore holding a young pig, which he irritates, in order to make it squeak. When the crocodile hears this, he immediately makes toward the sound; and, finding the Baited hook in his way, swallows it, and is then drawn to land, when they dash mud into his eyes, and blind him; after which he is soon dispatched.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 878)  
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
submitted by bikingfencer to BibleExegesis [link] [comments]


2019.07.15 21:09 babababearzzz NFC North- 3 Takeaways From Each Teams Offseason

Detroit Lions:

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The start of Matt Patricia's tenure with the Lions was less than ideal. Offseason issues, followed by a 6-10 record makes it seem like this is already a make or break year for Patricia. The Lions did acquire the most coveted free agent, Trey Flowers(DE), and drafted a top-five talent in T.J. Hockenson(TE). Maybe a drama-free offseason, and the addition of some "Patricia Guys," will put the Lions back in the mix in the North.
1: Tight Ends on Tight Ends
Patricia was trying to find his Gronk when he drafted T.J. Hockenson. He knows how an elite, two-way, tight end can optimize an offense. I'm not comparing a rookie to a future hall of famer, but Hockenson might turn out to be the best player from the 2019 draft. He's a complete tight end with hands like a wide receiver, and the tenacity of an offensive lineman. Although tight ends usually take time to develop, I believe that Hockenson will be the best tight end in the NFC North by 2020. Free agent Jessie James, and T.J. Hockenson will give offensive coordinator Derrell Bevell a lot to work in twelve personnel. The Lions also added veteran Logan Thomas (BUF) and drafted Isaac Nauta(Georgia). Detroit's tight end room will look brand new in 2019.
2: Toughness
As I stated in the intro, the Lions want to bring in "Patricia Guys." Matt Patricia comes from the Parcells coaching tree. Every time Parcells took over a team, he needed a few of his guys, to install the culture. He coached some of the toughest, nastiest players the league has ever seen. "Parcells guys," needed to be all in, all the time. Matt Patricia is hoping to follow in Parcells footsteps. Familiar faces like Trey Flowers and Danny Amendola are part of the Lions 2019 free agent class. Although Flowers isn't known for his toughness, Amendola has taken some of the biggest hits coming across the middle I've ever seen. He's had three concussions, and that hasn't slowed him down a bit. Adding a bruiser like C.J. Anderson to pair with Kerryon Johnson, the tight ends, and scrappy receivers like Danny Amendola and Jermaine Kearse leads me to believe the Lions are determined to establish a running game this year.
3: Finally Get Stafford a Running Game
The Lions running game has been abysmal during Stafford's tenure with the Lions. The Lions have only had one 1,000 yard rusher, Reggie Bush(2013), since 2009. Other than Reggie Bush and Joique Bell, no Lions rusher has surpassed 800 yards with Stafford under center. The Lions added two interior linemen in the offseason as well as Anderson, and the tight ends. Offensive Coordinator Derrell Bevell's success in Seattle came from pounding the rock. Although the Lions don't have a Marshawn Lynch in the backfield, they're looking to run the ball. It won't be an easy task considering they will play two of the best defensive lines in the NFL twice this year. Either way, the Lions need to figure out a way to run the ball. Stafford has been top ten in the 'sacked' category since that 2013 season with Reggie Bush.
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Green Bay Packers:


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Years of accusations/rumors revealed in an article, and the story keeps snowballing. Green Bay finds itself in unfamiliar territory. I didn't want this article to be negative, but the Packers aren't making it easy. Everyone has said it, two legendary quarterbacks and only two rings. Extraordinary quarterback play has covered roster holes for the Packers in the past. Does Aaron Rodgers have another run left in him?
1: All New Everything
It all started last year when Mike McCarthy got fired after the week 13 loss to the Cardinals. The Packers searched for a new head coach and landed on Matt LeFleur. He coordinated under Sean McVay, and his offense has a little less freedom than Aaron Rodgers is accustom to. Rodgers has watched Jordy Nelson, and Randall Cobb walk out the door in back to back years. It sounds crazy to say, but even Clay Matthews was not re-signed, and he will be seen wearing a Rams jersey this season. The Packers are replacing Matthews with two new edge rushers, Preston Smith and Za'Darius Smith. Both have shown potential in the past, but neither player is labeled as a proven pass rusher. The Packers also signed former Bears safety, Adrian Amos. Amos steadily improved throughout his career and has developed into a solid safety. He wouldn't be considered a "ball hawk," but he executes his assignments. The safety swap between Haha Clinton-Dix and Amos has been heavily disputed. Either way, the Packers wanted someone a little more disciplined on the back end, and that's what they got. The Packers also used their first two picks on defensive end Rashan Gary(Michigan), and safety Darnell Savage(Maryland). On paper, the defense seems to have improved, but the jury is still out.
2: Breaking the Bank and the Ghost of Previous Drafts Past
This offseason, the Packers spent $180.1 million on five free agents. The Jets were the only team to spend more money than the Packers, spending $216.31 million on sixteen players. Any team that relies heavily on free agency to fill roster spots pays a premium. The problem is, the Packers didn't fill many spots. Typically Green Bay has a small free agent class because they build through the draft. Any team that has sustained success drafts well. The Packers drafted eight players in 2015, and none remain on the roster. The deeper you go, the worse it gets. The Packers didn't resign one player this offseason, and let seventeen players become free agents. Of those seventeen players, only six received contracts. All the contracts received were 1-2 year deals, and the average yearly salary is only $2.7 million per year. A Bears blogger can lie, but numbers don't. Aaron Rodgers is good enough to win ten games on his own, but if this defense doesn't pan out, they won't compete for anything significant.
3. The Rodgers Situation
By now all of the reports are out there, and you know what they say. My take is, sometimes you hear stories and they don't seem too far fetched. Does Aaron Rodgers have a right to be arrogant? I mean, he's an unbelievable player. Favre may have had his issues, but the undying loyalty of his teammates was never in question. Rodgers is probably a better quarterback than Favre was, but he's definitely nowhere near as likable.
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Minnesota Vikings:

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The Vikings thought they were a quarterback away from their Superbowl aspirations in 2018. They went out and signed Kirk Cousins to a fully guaranteed contract, thinking he would get them over the hump. Cousins' statistics were impressive, but unfortunately for the Vikings, they missed the playoffs posting an 8-7-1 record. Although he might have the best combination of skill players in the North to work with, his offensive line had trouble keeping him upright. Kirk Cousins was sacked 40 times in 2018. The offensive issues aren't all on Kirk, but he produced the lamest soundbite of 2018 all by himself.
1: O-Line Shuffle
The Vikings are looking at three new starters on the offensive line this coming season. Replacing more than half of your O-line isn't ideal, but the Vikings starting line should look much better than last season. The addition of first-rounder Garett Bradbury pushes former center, Pat Elflein, to guard. The Vikings also added veteran Josh Kline(TEN) through free agency, to help solidify the interior. Riley Reiff is returning to protect the blindside, who was their best lineman in 2017. The Vikings starters need to stay healthy this year because there is a lack of depth at every position on the O-line. If not, they will be back to square one.
2: Hiring of Kevin Stefanski
Continuity and understanding within a coaching staff will go a long way. Through the year the disconnect between Head Coach Mike Zimmer and Offensive Coordinator John DeFilippo became more and more apparent. Zimmer is old-school, and he wants to pound the rock. Coach Zimmer criticized his OC on multiple occasions during interviews in 2018. As we know, DeFilippo got fired after a short stay in Minnesota, and quarterbacks Coach Kevin Stefanski stepped up as interim OC. Under Stefanski, the Vikings had their best offensive outputs of the 2018 season. His official promotion came in January. Stefanski has been with the team since 2006 and has coached every offensive unit besides lineman. He knows the players, he knows the organization, and most importantly, he knows what Mike Zimmer wants from his offense. Continuity is key.
3: The Draft, and Lingering Cap Issues
After a letdown season, the "Mike Zimmer 2019 Hot Seat," conversation has been in play. In reality, Mike Zimmer is sitting in a recliner right now. Rick Spielman's draft and offseason were way too Zimmer-friendly for me to believe his job is in jeopardy. They drafted two offensive linemen in their first four picks, a top tight end prospect, and running back Alexander Mattison(Boise State). Dalvin Cook has been injury-prone to start his career, and the Vikings don't want to miss a beat if he gets injured again. Mattison isn't a change-of-pace back. He is a bruiser and is about 15 pounds heavier than Cook. He had a full workload at Boise State carrying the ball 302 times for 1,415 yards and 17 touchdowns in 2018. Luckily, the Vikings had extra draft picks because their lingering cap issues forced them to let 14 people walk this offseason. They only had enough cap room to pay either Sheldon Richardson or Anthony Barr. They chose Barr. The Vikings have cap issues, but only because they have drafted and developed talent worthy of a payday. Out of the Vikings ten highest contracts, only three are free agent signings.
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Chicago Bears:

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A new head coach and a free agent superstar paved the way for the Bears to win their first NFC North title since 2010. It took four years for the Executive of the Year, Ryan Pace, to completely overhaul the roster. The Bears made strides in 2018, and have the opportunity to prove they belong amongst the top-ranked teams in the NFL. Chicago has one of the toughest schedules in 2019, containing three of the top five teams from last year.
1. Loss of Fangio
The Bears defense was phenomenal last year, and the 'evil genius' behind it all was Vic Fangio. In four years Vic took a bottom ranked defense and molded them into a powerhouse. Fangio's work in Chicago earned him a head coaching position in Denver. His replacement, Chuck Pagano, coached alongside Fangio in Baltimore in the late 2000s. Both coaches run a similar base defense, but Pagano is known to have a much more aggressive approach. The Bears defense was special in 2018, partly because they didn't give up big plays. A more aggressive approach can result in letting up more chunk yardage, but it's not guaranteed. The Bears are hopeful Matt Nagy's Offense will pick up the slack until the defense can get back to form.
2. Little Off-season Wiggle Room/Kicking Competition
After spending a good chunk of the team's salary cap on free agents in 2018, the Bears pulled off a trade for Kahlil Mack. The move put the Bears in cap trouble, but you can't pass on a player like Mack(unless you're Gruden). Entering 2019 the Bears were amongst the lowest in cap space. They also traded their 2019 second round pick to draft Anthony Miller(WR) in 2018. It's hard to get better, with little money, and less draft capital. The odds weren't in Pace's favor, but he still found a way to improve the roster. He signed multiple players to cap-friendly deals, filling the majority of the teams' roster needs. Free agent, Cordarelle Patterson, should be the answer to the Bears Kick Return issues, and HaHa Clinton-Dix will replace Adrian Amos at safety this year. They also drafted David Montgomery(Iowa State), and now the Bears have the running back of Matt Nagy's dreams. The only thing the Bears haven't figured out is who's playing kicker. Chicago's kicking competition has become a circus. The Bears have tried out nine different kickers and have narrowed it down to two candidates. They don't want to invest in another big contract for a veteran kicker, so they're hoping an inexpensive UDFA kicker can get the job done.
3. It's All About Mitch
Let's be real here, Mitchell Trubisky's progression is what the Bears are leaning on most this offseason. Will he take that next step? If you read reports from within the organization, he's primed to have a breakout year, but national media still has a hard time buying in. Everyone saw the overthrows at the beginning of last season, but if you watch his tape, you'll see progress. Trubisky has the skill set to make every throw, and he is known for his work ethic. Not to mention, he's in a perfect situation. It's hard to believe he won't make strides in 2019. If he doesn't the Bears are in trouble, if he does, the rest of the league is.


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2019.07.14 21:15 sosuhme Rough Draft 2019 offseason power rankings

1/ Patriots
Last year, I boldly ranked the Patriots #2, citing potential issues with a large amount of talent, on and off the field, leaving during the offseason. This year, Rob Gronkowski's retirement could impact them, the loss of Trey Flowers to the Lions could reduce their already meager pass rush, and their right tackle Trenton Brown left for a big pay day as well. But... let's just be honest, they've overcome bigger hurdles in the past. I've reached a point where they'll be #1 in my rankings until they don't make a super Bowl.
2/ Chiefs
A lot hinges on the availability of Tyreek Hill, but it looks like that's become a probability. It's rare that I would give that kind of credence to a WR, especially since many fans still think of him as a one trick pony, but in truth he's the mechanism that allows their offense to thrive. On the flip side, the cornerback back position was an easy target for Chiefs fans, given their struggles on defense, but they may end up missing their 3 year starter in Steven Nelson. Overall it seems like they are in good position to remain a huge threat to everyone they face.
3/ Vikings
One thing above all else held the Vikings back from reaching their potential. The offensive line. Kirk is an average QB, at best. That's totally fine when you have a top 5 defense, which they have, a deep receiving corps, which they have, and a solid run game... which they did not have... because the OL was terrible. It's absolutely never a certainty that just because you pour resources into a position, as the Vikings figured out the last time they paid a ton of money to OLs, that it's going to turn out the way you want. But that does not mean you give up trying, and they didn't. This year will be another opportunity for a group of guys, with likely a higher ceiling than last time, to try to make a name for themselves. Next off-season will bring some significant salary cap issues, so they had better make this year count.
4/ Chargers
smelling what the Chargers are stepping in is always a dangerous choice to make, but I guess I'm living on the edge of whatever toilet seat they may end up falling into. I've come to believe in Phillip Rivers as one of the most underrated QBs in the league, and he hasn't shown any signs of age slowing him down yet. While PFF ranks their OL 29th in the league, plenty of others see them as a much more promising group this year, and I'd tend to agree. Winning 12 games in the regular season might not be a sustainable bench mark for them, but it's really tough to point at an area they will surely regress. Well, other than safety...
5/ Saints
It's getting a little difficult to tune out the little birdies chirping about Drew Brees's declining arm strength. And it is a concern. However, on paper, it would appear that they were able to add enough talent to offset any marginal decline in arm talent we might see. Bigger concern, potentially, is finding the guy to replace Mark Ingram and spell Alvin Kamara, although Latavius Murray will try his best, behind the best OL he's ever had. The defense, while a few faces have changed, doesn't look much different on paper than the group that ranked just outside the top 10 in DVOA last year, with some potential growth from young players like Marcus Davenport.
6/ Eagles
The Eagles off-season was a bit confounding. They were slated to have very little cap space and a lot of important free agents. somehow, they walked out of it with an overall boost in talent, especially on the defensive side of the ball. so, if a really good team goes out and gets better in the offseason, why aren't they even higher? I've been following Carson Wentz since he was a sophomore QB at my home town NDsU. If there is one constant about him more than anything else, it's that he will get hurt. I completely recognize a lot of his injuries could easily be considered flukes, but it's been almost every year of his career now. Letting Nick Foles go made complete sense financially, but it does however take the Eagles from having arguably the best insurance situation in the league to one of the worst.
7/ Rams
This is the kind of ranking that results in people assuming you are biased against a team, but I promise you, I'm as ambivalent towards the Rams as I am towards cheese pizza or Busch Light(I mean... I'm not going to turn down beer or pizza). A combination of a weak, at least in terms of immediate impact, draft class, mass exodus of talent in free agency that you should have seen coming a mile away, and being one of the healthiest teams in the league last year has potential to sink the most popular team in Los Angeles. Their dominance on the OL is likely gone, and along with it a dominant run game and Goff's ability to stay clean(he really struggles under pressure). The already questionable defense could be even worse as well.
8/colts
I was tempted to put the Colts #1 on this list. And can very clearly see a scenario where they are the best team in the league. A defense that finished 10th in DVOA last year and added a very solid, if past his prime, Justin Houston to help the pass rush should maintain their above average status. The offense, similarly, clocked in at 10th in DVOA and looks ready to take off. so what do the Colts need? Health. Looking through their list of injured players from last you it's clear they lost a crazy amount of depth and that is unlikely to happen to quite the same extent this year. But... Andrew Luck has a "bone injury". Oi. Details have been scant and all over the place, and I'm not willing to complete rule the Colts out because I definitely think with Luck healthy they are a top tier team, I'm just not willing to bet he'll get or stay that way.
9/Packers
The Packers are well aware that their chance of success revolves around one player and they did everything they could to appease him. Aaron Rodgers is the quintessential squeaky wheel, and while it may rub some of his teammates the wrong way, it likely resulted in improved fortunes for the team in 2019. Matt LaFleur is clearly unproven, but Mike McCarthy was definitively holding the team back, so at very least if you let Rodgers coach the offense on the field, you've improved the situation. Meanwhile, in an extremely unprecedented move for the Packers, they spent big, and seemingly effectively, in FA, adding protection for Rodgers and overhauling the defense. The clock is ticking, but they are ready to go all in.
10/ Falcons
One of the best offenses in the league combined with one of the worst defenses. The investment in the OL could help the offense be even more efficient than last year and control most games in the regular season. I don't believe in the maxim that defense wins championships, but I do think you can point at a lot of purely offensive oriented teams who have made the playoffs and then fallen victim to more balanced ones. That is the likely outcome of this season for the Falcons, as I see it right now.
11/Browns
I am loathe to put the Browns this high, as I think the hype is vastly premature. That said, there were quite a few teams I had ranked above them in my initial, off the cuff, rankings, that I have now dropped for one reason or another, and someone has to benefit by default. If I'm putting on my Carnac hat, this year probably goes well for them, especially early on, but keeping that many strong personalities on the same page is incredibly difficult long term, so I won't be surprised to see them fizzle down the stretch, and next offseason may look rather bleak.
12/ Texans
Another team without many weaknesses outside of the offensive line. The talent is there at pretty much every other position group to be a top 10 team, so I'm going to go out on a limb here with the guess that we see marginally improved play from the OL and it's enough to put them in the drivers seat for a wildcard. While they may struggle to reproduce their success at turning the ball over on defense, that should be offset by a bit more luck in the health department, as they were one of the most injured teams in 2018.
13/ Bears
They were a top 3 team in terms of health last year, they had a net negative offseason in terms of talent gained/lost, and they were benefactors of the highest INT rate in the league. That spells regression. Adrian Amos, Bryce Callahan, and Jordan Howard all left and they weren't able to add much talent, especially in comparison to the rest of the league, in FA or the draft. Rookie RB David Montgomery has looked pretty good in camp, but it's way too early to assume he's a stud. It's an extremely important year for Mitch Trubisky also, as if he doesn't show development in his consistency he'll be firmly on the hot seat going forward.
14/ Ravens
Were it not for a complete lack of faith in Lamar Jackson I could easily have had the Ravens much higher on this list. Despite losing some major talent, I think their defense is likely to be one of the best in the league. It certainly wasn't overwhelming but I liked the additions they made on offense as well, with Mark Ingram, Michael Floyd, and a handful of rookies with speed and solid upside. It's possible I am being a fuddy duddy, get off my lawn, type, but I just am not buying the efficacy, at least in terms of consistency, of an offense built on improvisation in the NFL.
15/ steelers
The steelers still have one of the best OLs in the league, and likely will have a solid run game as a result. It's the passing attack that leaves us with question marks. I am completely on board with the idea of not overpaying Antonio Brown, especially when the drama he created was seemingly doing quite a bit of harm, but... now they only have one decent wide receiver and a bunch of crap. It might be a bottom 5 receiving corps all together. I know they have a history of bringing up WRs, but this year is a pretty tall task in that regard. It's probably not exactly what Big Ben had in mind for what might be his swan song season. With a mid tier defense and what I'm predicting will be a somewhat impotent offense, hard to see them in the top 10. Oh, and they'll likely have to deal with more injuries than last year.
16/ seahawks
A legacy type team with a ton of question marks. Personally I consider Russell Wilson to be the most dangerous QB in the game right now, but how much can one man do? The receiving corps is questionable, the running backs are questionable, and guess what, so is the offensive line. Yet you trust them more than most teams just because they have a track record of making it work. The defense was average last year and lost some important pieces, so average may be the ceiling this time around as well. Ezekial Ansah will be a very interesting player to watch because if he manages to get healthy, he can wreck opposing OLs.
17/ Cowboys
I truly don't believe in paying RBs top dollar. Not that they don't deserve it, from a human perspective, but because they rarely live up to the contract. The Cowboys are in a unique position though because for 2019, if Ezekial Elliot doesn't play? Their offense could completely fall apart. Dak Prescott is a mediocre at best QB and while the pass game looked alright in 2018 after the addition of Amari Cooper, without the run game and versatility of Elliot, it could easily all fall apart. so, do you pay for 2019, a year they probably aren't destined to win it all anyway? Or do you hold back and just kind of let things fall apart with the hope you can come back strong next year? I don't know what the answer for them is.
18/ Panthers
For years, good or bad, the Panthers were one of the most exciting teams in the league. I think that time may have passed. Cam Newton is often limited and not quite as dynamic a rusher as he once was, although you could definitely say he's become more consistent in the pass game. The defense, once filled with names everyone knew might now be seeking an identity. Their pass catchers are meh, their OL might be above average, but not by too much. Christian McCaffrey is certainly dynamic out of the backfield, I'm not sure he's enough to make this team truly interesting come December, so they fall very firmly in my mid tier bracket.
19/ Lions
The bottomline is that the Lions improved on paper this offseason more than most of the other teams in the league. specifically, they effectively targeted their weaknesses, by adding the best DE and slot corner in free agency, as well as bolstering the TE group significantly with Jesse James and TJ Hockenson. The WR group leaves something to be desired, but with the pass game likely to heavily involve the TEs and RBs, an average offense is not outside the realm of possibility. Anything less than an above average defense, however, will be a significant disappointment.
20/ Titans
It looks like you have an average team in almost every way, except QB, where you are below average. I think that justifies being ranked #20, right? They did pour some resources into FA, adding Rodger saffold, Adam Humphries(who I really would have loved to see in Honolulu Blue), and Cameron Wake, but is it really enough to put them over? I doubt it. Major changes loom after this season if Marcus Mariotta doesn't definitively prove he's a franchise level QB. Fortunately for the Titans, if they do bomb this year, they can likely get one in this upcoming draft!
21/ Jets
A lot of people are really excited about the Jets. I am partially on that bandwagon, but not completely. They finished at 21 and 29 respectively in defensive and offensive DVOA last year, but there is certainly room for improvement for them. The additions of CJ Mosley, Leveon Bell, and Jameson Crowder all have significant chances to boost the team in their respective areas. I also like sam Darnold most out of any of the 1st or 2nd year QBs, long term anyway. But I also think what we'll see is some boring, gradual growth. An 8-8 record seems like the 2019 ceiling unless they get really lucky.
22/ 49ers
some view the 49ers as a darkhorse, some as a bottom feeder. Taking my usual tack, that finds me right in the middle. The offense has a bit of a no name situation going on outside of Jimmy Garappolo, who we obviously haven't seen enough of to jump to conclusions one way or the other, and George Kittle, which, just how significant is one TE? Wide Receiver, Marquise Goodwin, who is very, very fast, is dealing with a bit of an injury, but as long he's ready to roll week one they can open things up underneath for guys like Jalen Hurd and Deebo samuel. I seriously question their run game behind an oft injured Jerrick McKinnon and Matt Brieda. The defense appears... average, although they certainly made an attempt to add talent in FA.
23/ Raiders
Drama, drama, drama, drama. Antonio Brown will almost certainly play, and play well, but getting a team on the same page is critical to sustained success. Oh, and Jon Gruden is a muppet and I have a hard time believing players actually respect him. I was prepared to put the Raiders significantly higher on this list because they DID bring in quite a bit of talent, but things just keep going downhill, at least from an optics perspective. Maybe that's how they want it and maybe it ends up working for them that they find some kind of uniting identity in the absurdity, but I won't hold my breath.
24/ Jags
I'm actually quite hesitant to put the Jags this low. They had a rough year full of injuries last season and they certainly have some really good players. But I still think they might be candidates for the worst offense in the league. They had a somewhat massive roster turn over in FA, which I tend not to view as a good thing, and while I actually really like their draft long term, I don't think the rookies will be able to turn the tide here. Nick Foles outside of the elite supporting cast bubble he's lived in in Philly is not really a promising addition to me, although I kind of hope he proves me wrong.
25/Broncos
I'm actually feeling a little bullish on the Broncos and would not be at all surprised to see them finish in a better position than where I have them here. That said, it's not difficult at all to see a scenario where the offense in Denver is near league worst. A massive change at QB and OC can easily take time to meld, and it's not as if Joe Flacco has been getting better. Drew Lock isn't exactly inspiring at this point either.
25/ Bucaneers
It's hard to look at the Bucs roster and see an overall upgrade. As much as I can't stand Bruce Arians as a personality, I think he's the kind of HC who can inspire a team in the short term. It's just hard to see where the best this team can be can even get them with a weak roster. Perhaps that all changes if Jameis Winston finally turns the corner on his consistency, but I'm definitely not willing to bet on that yet.
26/ Bills
The Buffalo Bills had the 2nd fewest adjusted games lost to in injury in 2018, per Foutball Outsiders. Combined with their final record of 6-10 and the second worst offense in the league, that's a really bad look. Now, on the flip side, they were able to use their ample cap space to completely overhaul that terrible offense, and so there is potential there for great improvement. But... haha, it should be pretty clear to anyone who listens to the show or reads my very occasional articles how I feel about large scale roster turnover. A few guys here and there to upgrade positions? Great. Mass change? Continuity is very important, in my opinion, and with such a massive number of new faces, it will likely take awhile for things to gel in Buffalo.
28/ Bengals
One of my better wins in predicting team movement over the last 5 years has been the Bengals collapsing. That said, I was almost ready to start believing in them again this year, but it didn't last. Almost. Once you start looking closer at this team, however, it's really tough to find things to like. Firstly, they are dealing with a handful of injuries to important players, Tyler Eiffert, Darqueze Dennard, AJ Green, etc. with unclear timetables. Next, they had a bottom 5 DVOA defense last year, and while they have quite a bit of consistency there that could help them improve slightly, it's hard to see them hitting average. On offense, Joe Mixon may be the lone bright spot until Green returns to full health, but behind what still looks like a bad offensive line, his impact may be limited.
29/ Redskins
I'm not sure I'd call them the worst team in any one area, but it's really tough to find anywhere to call them good. My major concern is now with Trent Williams refusing to play for them that their already bad OL could be league bottom. Given the lack of stability at QB, that problem is exacerbated. Dwanye Haskins is likely a developmental guy, despite an okay preseason showing, so I definitely expect quite a few rough outings from him this season.
30/ Giants
The Giants have somewhat epitomized what it looks like to be a team with talented players but terrible direction. And now most of the talent has left the building. To their credit they continue to TRY to improve the OL, which has been a complete disaster for most of the last 5 years, but they have done so by more or less just going after the vets with the best legacy as opposed to trying to build for the future. The WR situation is a major concern right now, although it should improve after Golden Tate comes back in week 5.
31/ Dolphins
Holy hell. This roster is off the rails. They talk about a long term approach, which I can appreciate, but given that they have had a few years under the current FO regime already and it has been a complete disaster the whole way, I'm not prone to giving them any benefit of the doubt. I like to generally get more specific, but it's tough to even find a group on the roster that looks even average.
32/ Cardinals
My opinion on them has shifted a bit from thinking they were the clear cut worst team in the NFL to just thinking they are clear cut bottom 5, but I still can't quite get over how bad I think their roster is. That could change if either the OL or receiving corps, the latter of which has some young guys who could surprise, makes unexpected improvements. My well documented hatred of young QBs, and my less well documented hatred of hyped college coaches, play major factors here as well. I may have to reevaluate my stance on either or both if things work out in AZ this year.
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2019.06.29 20:56 bikingfencer Job 19 - Show yourself

Chapter Nineteen – Job believes that the Name will defend his righteousness  
“He is now fully aware of his friends’ total lack of comprehension… and this awareness intensifies the sense of his isolation: cornered by God… and ostracized by man… he is brought to such a paroxysm of misery that in the rebound of despair he dreams once more of a heavenly witness … breaks the limits of his present condition (vss. [verses] 22-24), transcends the inevitable prospect of imminent death, and seizes in triumph upon the certainty of his ultimate vision of God (vss. 25-29).” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1040)  
“Between introductory and closing two-line strophes, the chapter contains four three-line strophes, one four-line, another three-line, one five line, i.e. [in other words], 2; 3, 3, 3; 3, 4, 3; 5; 2.” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 477)  
-1. And responded, Job, and said:  
-2. “Until when [אנה, ’ahNaH] will you afflict [תוגיון, ThOGYON] my soul
and crush me in words [במלים, BeMeeLeeYM]?  
“Job begins by throwing Bildad’s exordium back at him (using the same expressions, ‘How long…? and ‘words,’ as 18:2). (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 477)  
-3. “This ten times you insulted me;
you are not ashamed of injury to me.  
These ten times, i.e. [in other words], often, repeatedly (cf. [compare with] Gen. [Genesis] 31:7; Num. [Numbers] 14:22)… The Hebrew word [הכר HahKahR] is uncertain… Ewald, followed by many modern commentators, has suggested that the Hebrew הכר is related to the Arabic hakara, ‘to oppress,’ ‘to torment,’ ‘to torture.’ The meaning of the word should be strong enough to match those which precede.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1041)  
-4. “And even if truly I did crazily,
with me lodges my craziness.  
And be it indeed that I have erred [shāghîthî]… mine error [meshûghāthî] remainith with myself: As in 7:20, Job is not making a confession of culpability. He is merely offering a conjecture for the sake of the discussion. Vs. [verse] 4b is susceptible of several interpretations. … ‘If I had erred (which I have not), my error would dwell with me and remain in my memory. I would remember it, but I do not; therefore, I have never violated the commandments of the Almighty, I have not made even a mistake.’ This exegesis is unlikely, since the word שגה [ShaGaH] and its derivatives appear to refer to an act of offense by ignorance, inadvertence, or default, e.g. [for example], in a state of intoxication and irresponsibility caused by drunkenness or the passion of love (Lev. [Leviticus] 4:14; Num. 15:22; Ezek. [Ezekiel] 45:20; etc.); thus, Job might be accused of having been unconscious of his crime, a charge that he definitely denies…  
“The context following (vs. 5)… suggests the possibility… Even if Job has committed a meshûghāh, this error or ‘mistake’ (as opposed to a sin of intention) would be his own business and should not concern his friends… This verse seems therefore to open up the theme of social isolation, which will be the object of a pathetically eloquent and even gripping description in the course of the next few lines.  
“…Following the LXX, [the Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] which gave to the verb לין [LeeYN “lodge”] (vs. 4b) its literal meaning, one should probably render the verse as follows;  
If in truth I had erred,
My error would have remained with me only for a night.  
“In other words, it would have been an aberration without any lasting effect. It would not offer a satisfactory explanation of Job’s present misery…  
“The confession of an error in words, temporarily entertained, carries a denial of any graver guilt which would have permanently stained the record of the sufferer and would have been, according to the friends’ thesis, the cause of his torments. Far from pleading guilty, Job turns to the offensive, and in the next lines delivers the thus-far mightiest blow of his encounter with the three antagonists.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1041-1043)  
“If Job is wrong, he will only harm himself; why must they be so bitter and so intolerant? (The reason is that he threatens their religious existence; he must not be right, otherwise their whole faith would be undermined. It is their insecurity that makes them cruel.)” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 477)  
-5. “If truly upon me you aggrandize [תגדילו, ThaGDeeYLOo],
and argue upon me my reproach,
-6. know His fury,
for ‘eLOHa subverts me
and His net upon me He wraps.  
“The rendering of ‘iwwethānî is not easy, for the verb עות [`eeVTha], used in the Piel1 , means ‘to falsify,’ ‘to bend,’ ‘to subvert,’ ‘to make crooked,’ and is here linked directly with the personal pronoun ‘me’ instead of with a concrete object like ‘scales’ (as in Amos 8:5) or an abstract substantive2 like ‘justice’ (as in 8:3). In any event, the general meaning is clear, for Job is plainly and bluntly stating that God, the author of his plight has willfully distorted the truth concerning him… It is a grave charge. Once more one of the devices of the dialogue technique used by the poet appears in full light. It seems that the hero has slowly and silently meditated upon the statement made by Bildad in the first speech. To the question ‘Doth the Almighty pervert righteousness?’ (8:3b) Job did not immediately make open reply. But now, cornered like a hunted animal, he dares to utter the blasphemy: ‘I tell you, it is God who has falsified my case.’ … Job’s statement is exceptionally intrepid and borders on titanic usurpation of divine powers. By asserting that Eloah has distorted his right (cf. Rom. [Romans] 3:5), he judges the Deity’s conduct, motivation, and nature. He, the finite dwarf, the son of clay, the ephemeral moth, has lost the sense of his dependence upon God. Job denounces and rebukes his Creator. Man condemns God.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1043-1044)  
 
“THE ENMITY OF GOD (19: 7-12)  
“In the second strophe Job rises to the stature of the noble damned by substantiating the charges he has just made against the nature of the divinity… he concentrates on the task of offering evidence that God is not indifferent but hostile and malicious.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1044)  
“From the seventh to the thirteenth verse there seems to be an allusion to a hostile invasion, battles, sieges, &c.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 784)  
7. “Lo, I shout, ‘Violence!’
and am not responded to,
‘Halloo!’ and there is no justice.
-8. My course is hedged in,
and I cannot pass,
and upon my path darkness is put.  
“The thought and the expressions are closely related to those of Hab. [Habakkuk] 1:2; Jer. [Jeremiah] 20:8… Lam. [Lamentations] 3:8… The silence of God could not be interpreted as a sign of his indifference. He has maliciously blocked all the exits (vs. 8a) and in addition has blinded his prisoner (vs. 8b).” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1044)  
9. “My honor from upon me is stripped,
and He removed [the] crown from my head.
-10. He breaks me down around and I walk [away],
and He uproots like a tree my hope.  
-11. And He heats upon me His fury,
and I am thought of to Him as a distressor.
-12. Together come His troops,
and they shore up upon me their way,
and they encamp around to my tent.  
“In contrast with his former status, the sufferer feels not only stripped (vs. 9a) but also marked for the final onslaught. According to the blunt colloquialism, ‘he is a goner’ (cf. ‘I am gone,’ vs. 10a) … They have cast up siegeworks against me (vs. 12b), preparing for the final attack.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1045)  
 
“THE HOSTILITY OF MEN (19:13-19)
“… It is God who has spurred and wrought his enemy’s social seclusion. Through a relentless and gradual tightening of the circles which close upon the hero to ensure thereby his utter loneliness, the strophe moves to its climax of desolation and horror. As in some symphonie fantastique, one can hear below and behind the musical phrasing, sustained by strings and winds, the haunting, growing, inevitably faster and faster rhythm of the percussion instruments. Here is more than a mere enumeration of terms or a sociological catalogue. Here is the poetic expression of an isolation which prepares psychologically for the birth of hope told in the subsequent strophe (vss. 23-29). Observe the monotonous and yet progressive accumulation of words… ‘The book of Job was written [partly] against a theology which bred suspicion, soured the milk of human kindness, alienated bosom friends, and covered with infamy those who should have been crowned with honour and glory.’ (Strahan)  
“As may be expected, critics do not agree upon the correct translation of these verses.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1045-1046)  
-13. “My brother from upon me has distanced himself,
and my acquaintances even are estranged from me.
-14. Failed have those near to me,
and from my acquaintances I am forgotten.  
“Verse 15. They that dwell in mine house] in this and the following verses the disregard and contempt usually shown to men who have fallen from affluence and authority, into poverty and dependence, are very forcibly described… A bishop… being obliged to leave his country and fly for his life, in the days of bloody Queen Mary, and who never regained his bishopric, being met one morning by one like those who Job describes, who, intending to be witty at the expense of the venerable prelate, accosted him thus: - ‘Good morrow, BISHOP quondam. [“at one time”]’ To which the bishop smartly replied, ‘Adieu, KNAVE semper [“always”].” (Adam Clarke, 1831, pp. II 784-785)  
nobody knows you when you're down and out  
-15. “Residents of my house and my maidens to a stranger think of me,
an alien am I in their eyes.  
“Verse 15. They that dwell in mine house] in this and the following verses the disregard and contempt usually shown to men who have fallen from affluence and authority, into poverty and dependence, are very forcibly described… A bishop… being obliged to leave his country and fly for his life, in the days of bloody Queen Mary, and who never regained his bishopric, being met one morning by one like those who Job describes, who, intending to be witty at the expense of the venerable prelate, accosted him thus: - ‘Good morrow, BISHOP quondam. [“at one time”]’ To which the bishop smartly replied, ‘Adieu, KNAVE semper [“always”].” (Adam Clarke, 1831, pp. II 784-785)  
-16. To my slave I called
and he did not answer;
with [במו, BeMO] my mouth I beseeched him.
-17. My spirit estranged to my wife,
and my beseeching to sons of my belly.  
“… this passage… is used as a weapon by those who claim that the poet is not the author of the folk tale (in which the sons of Job have all died; cf. 1:18-21) and even that he was not aware of it.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1046)  
“But the mention of his children in this place may intimate that he had still some remaining; that there might have been young ones, who, not being of a proper age to attend the festival of their elder brothers and sisters, escaped that sad catastrophe.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 785)  
-18. “Also youngsters [עוילים, `ahVeeYLeeYM] are fed up [מאסו, Mah’ahÇOo] in me,
I rise and they word in me.
-19. Abhor me all adults [מתי, MahThaY], secret to me,
and this, whom I love, reversed in me.  
“The inner circle of intimates, of whom even greater loyalty was expected than of wife or brothers, my intimate friends: Lit. [literally], ‘men of my secret council.’” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 477)  
 
“FINAL PLEA TO MEN (19:20-24)  
“Vs. 19 in the preceding strophe is a hinge for the transition which leads in this strophe to the most passionate appeal yet made to man in the dialogue…” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1047)  
-20. In my skin and in my flesh cleft are my bones,
and I escape in skin [of] my teeth.  
“Although the general meaning of this verse is obvious, both lines present a great deal of uncertainty and they have challenged the ingenuity of interpreters.

“Vs. 20b has become a proverbial saying… it has therefore received a great deal of exegetical scrutiny, but no certain interpretation seems to be possible. Most critics conclude that the M.T. [Masoretic Text, the authorized Hebrew Bible] is corrupt and they emend it in many different ways.

“The extraordinary variety of these corrections… reveals the wholly hypothetical nature of the attempt. Several scholars therefore assume that the Hebrew text has been correctly preserved and that the traditional translation, I have escaped by the skin of my teeth3 , represent an idiomatic expression, the precise meaning of which may only be guessed.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1047-1048)  
-21. “Pity me, pity me, you, my neighbors,
for [the] hand [of] ‘eLOHa has touched in me.  
“Under stress of agony the pride and anger which have prompted many of his invectives abate at last. He had previously refused, against the explicit advice he had received (8:5), to implore the grace, mercy, or pity of God (9:15). He has however come to implore – in vain – the pity of his own slave (19:16); and now in the depth of his distress he beseeches these three friends, who are still willing to remain with him, to speak and to listen to him… This sudden break in the pride of the lone eagle offers another evidence of the profound incisiveness with which the poet probes into the recesses of human nature. Job is completely misunderstood by his friends, and he claims that they are entirely wrong in the judgment which they pass upon his case and are even cruel in the way they treat him. Nevertheless he craves their approval… He cannot yet bring himself to pray for the grace of the pity of God cf. Ps. [Psalm] 123:3), because it is precisely the hand of God which hath touched him (vs. 21b; cf. the use of the same verb in the confession of the suffering servant in Isa. [Isaiah] 53:4). This is the reason for which he appeals to the pity of his friends…” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1049)  
-22. “Why do you pursue me like ‘ayL,
and from my flesh are not sated?  
“In one sentence Job castigates all religious inquisitors who justify their inhumanity to man by the illusory claim of being divinely appointed to their task. ‘Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service’ (John 16:2)… ‘To eat the flesh of someone’ is an Aramaic and Arabic idiom for ‘slandering’ (Dan. [Daniel] 3:8; cf. Job 31:31).” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1049-1050)  
-23. “Who will give, where,
and write my words?
Who will give [them] in an account
and engrave them 24. in a pen [of] iron and lead to until,
in rock chisel?  
“Having recognized the futility of appealing to the pity of his friends, Job tries a different method. … If nobody vindicates him now, he will appeal to the verdict of posterity… Some commentators observe that there is no progression from vs. 23 to vs. 24 because the verb חקק [HaQaQ] means ‘to engrave,’ and thus the noun ספר [ÇayPheR] ‘scroll,’ should be understood as a Hebrew equivalent of the Akkadian siparru, ‘brass,’ ‘bronze’ (cf. Judg. [Judges] 5:14; Isa. 30:8)[?]). This brilliant suggestion has found support in the discovery – near the Dead Sea – of two scrolls of copper inscribed with Hebrew characters…  
“…Even this literary fancy, however, fails to satisfy his desire. He realizes that an eventual vindication in the distant future would be of no significance… The fetters of his isolation, not only from men but also from God, must be broken now. Thus, pushed to the extreme limit of agony, rejects the dream of a human verdict of acquittal in the centuries to come and enters the yet unexplored world of personal certainty: he looks for a defense and a vindication now in the afterlife (vs. 25 ff. [and following])” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1050)
-25. “And I know my redeemer lives,
and at last upon dust he will rise,  
“Any attempt to establish the true meaning of this passage is almost hopeless. By learned men and eminent critics, the words have been understood very differently…” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. II 786)  
“…the conjunctive letter waw does not imply a link of logical sequence with the preceding verses, but on the contrary suggests an adversative sense… The word gô’ēl represents (a) the man, usually next of kin, who is the avenger of the blood, i.e., of the blood which has been shed by murder (II Sam. [Samuel] 14:11); (b) the man, also next of kin, who has the right to buy or ‘redeem’ the estate of a dead person or to raise up a posterity for him (Deut. [Deuteronomy] 25:5-10; Ruth 2:20; 3:9; 4:4 ff., cf. Lev. 25:25; Num. 5:8); (c) by extension, the defender of the oppressed (Prov. [Proverbs] 23:10-11), and especially therefore the defender par excellence, i.e., God. The verb gā’al or the participial noun gô’ēl is used for the Deity when (i) Israel is delivered from the Egyptian bondage (Exod. [Exodus] 6:6; 15:13; Ps. 74:2; etc.) and from the Exile (Isa. 41:14; 43:1; etc.); (ii) individuals are saved from oppression (Ps. 119:154; Prov. 23:11; Jer. 50:34), evil (Gen. 48:16), or death (Pss. 69:18…)…  
“It is generally agreed that the gô’ēl in vs. 25 cannot be a human being since the hero’s sons are dead and his relatives have deserted him. Thus commentators usually maintain that Job, through an upsurge of passionate will to be vindicated, suddenly breaks through the wall of his isolation, passes from the stage of vain wish (vss. 23-24) into that of positive conviction, and declares his unshakable knowledge that God himself will be the vindicator of his innocence, the defender of his good name, and the restorer of his honor. It is pointed out that (a) the word ḥay, ‘alive,’ ‘living,’ is a common designation of the Deity (Josh. [Joshua] 3:10; Hos. [Hosea] 1:10 [Hebrew 2:1]; etc.) … (b) the word ’aḥarôn, last, clearly describes the gô’ēl (cf. Isa. 48:12; especially 44:6, ‘Thus saith Yahweh, the King of Israel and his gô’ēl, Yahweh of hosts, I am first and I am last [’aḥarôn] …’); (c) the verb yāqûm, he shall stand (vs. 25b), or rather, ‘he shall rise up’ (cf. 16:8), is the terminus technicus [technical term] for the theophanies4 ] (Artur Weiser, […1951]… cf. many parallels, e.g., ‘For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise…’ [Ps. 12:6]); (d) the expression ’al- āphār, upon the dust (vs. 25b), is identical with that found in 41:33 (cf. 5:6; 8:19; 14:8): it indicates that God will come down from heaven and appear within the frame of history to take up the defense of his hero… As Yahweh will appear at the eschatological time (‘the last’) to save Israel in her extremity, so also will God appear to Job; and it will be his judgment, not that of men, which will constitute the final act of the drama…  
“Against this prevailing interpretation it may be argued that (a) the gô’ēl cannot be God, for Job has heretofore consistently thought of the Deity as an implacably hostile being, and (much more important) continues to do so in the remaining part of the poetic discussion (cf. 27:2); (b) it is hard, if not impossible, to believe that Job, who has just declared that God persecutes him (vs. 22), at once would completely reverse his position and declare that God is his eternal vindicator (vs.25); (c)… it has been seen (cf. Exeg. [exegesis] on 16:1-22) that the witness in heaven is to be distinguished from God, and that therefore the identification of the gô’ēl with God cannot find any support from the text of 16:19 ff.: (d) the words ‘living’ last, shall stand, and upon the earth may well apply to the mysterious being whom Job conceived for a moment as a ‘mediator’ (9:33), and later recalled to his psychological consciousness not merely as the object of a fleeting fancy but as the heavenly person ‘who vouches for [him] on high and will maintain the right of man with God’ (16:19, 21). Now that irrepressible confidence once more enraptures him, and at this climatic moment he shouts, ‘But I know that my defender lives! He will survive my unjust death, and over the dust of my grave… he will stand at the last instant. Through his intermediation, by his activity, he will summon God and me together, and bring me before the face of God!’ Such an interpretation… overcomes the otherwise insurmountable difficulty raised by the fact that in the end of the poem, in spite of the weighty opinion of several critics to the contrary, God does not reveal himself as the gô’ēl of Job but rather as the transcendent and holy Deity who, far from upholding the honor and integrity of the sufferer, casts him down into utter self-abhorrence and repentance (42:2-6). In this connection it is important to note that if this exegesis is correct, Job has indeed begun to abandon the hope of defending or justifying himself, but nevertheless remains adamant in the conviction of his innocence. His pride stands, exactly as it shows itself to the end of the poetic discussion (31:40).  
“A liturgical formula from the Ugaritic literature presents a verbal parallel to vs. 25a which may be either purely accidental or extremely important and significant, especially in the light of the above discussion. The worshiper declares in the course of a liturgical celebration of a season festival,  
wid’kḥy aliyn b‘l
lot zbl b‘l arṣ  
And I know that the powerful baal liveth,
Existent is the prince, Lord of the earth!  
“… This formula is repeated in the sequence of the Ugaritic text… and appears to be a ritual rubric used in celebrating the festival of the dying and rising god… let it be made clear that it is not possible to demonstrate the play of the polytheistic influence of some ancient Semitic cult upon the Joban poet. Yet one can reasonably conjecture that the hero, forsaken of all men and separated from God, may have pinned his hope upon the existence of a heavenly being who would survive his own untimely death and bring about the miracle of a divine-human confrontation. ‘The parallel may be merely be accidental. But it is equally possible that archaic religious terminology about a god who had been dead but was now alive (and therefore able to act decisively) comes to the surface in this formulation. The prolonged absence of divine help may well have led the poet to think of the situation that existed in the pagan world when a god had departed for the land of the dead, while the joyous moment of his restoration to life and the resumption of his accustomed helpful role is recaptured in the assertion that ‘he lives.’ …  
“In any case, and although Job is no way alluding to a Messiah, the passage foreshadows an obstinacy of faith which transcends the limitations of the original poem.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1051-1053)  
-26. “and afterward my skin is wrapped up thus [זאת, Zo’Th],  
“Vs. 26a is in a state of textual corruption which defies the resources of exegesis. The Hebrew of the M.T. is syntactically incoherent. The words mean, lit., ‘And after’ (preposition introducing a noun, or conjunction governing a verb) or ‘afterwards’ (adverb), ‘my skin’ (masculine noun), ‘they have stricken off’ (Piel of נקף [NaQaPh] I…) or ‘they surrounded’ (hypothetical Piel of נקף II…), ‘this’ (feminine pronoun). The ancient versions differ widely from the present M.T. and also among themselves.

“All textual emendations suggested by modern critics (and their number is high) represent skillful but wholly conjectural proposals. It is better to leave the clause of vs. 26a untranslated…” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1053-1054)  
I thought maybe mummy imagery.  
“and from my flesh I envision ‘eLOHa
 
“The Hebrew of vs. 26b appears at first sight to be clear and well preserved, but its meaning is ambiguous, and the evidence from the ancient versions suggests the probability of textual corruption here also. It reads, lit., ‘And from my flesh I shall see God.’ … there is no valid reason for challenging the accuracy of the present M.T., since vs. 27 obviously indicates that Job expected to see God. Two questions remain: (a) Will this experience take place before his death or afterward? (b) If the answer to the preceding question is ‘afterward,’ in what mode of existence will Job face the Deity – as a disincarnated spirit, or in a form of being which is described pictorially as in carne [“in flesh”]?  
“On the one hand, it will be observed that the preposition מן [MeeN] assumes a privative meaning not only with verbs of motion and separation (as is ordinarily the case), but also in spatially neutral contexts… On the other hand, there is no doubt that when used with a verb expression vision or perception, the same preposition מן refers to the point of vantage, the locale from which or through which the function of sight operates. Thus ‘Yahweh looketh from [מן] heaven…’ (Ps. 33:13…)… It is therefore evident that 19:26b should be translated with the KJV [King James Version], in my flesh shall I see God. This exegesis is confirmed (a) negatively by the fact that the idea of a bodiless mode of human existence is totally foreign to the Semitic mentality (as proved by the growth and development of the belief in carnal resurrection); and (b) positively by the subsequent and emphatic assertion, apparently needed to convince the astonished and even skeptical listeners (and exegetes?), that Job himself will see God with his own eyes (vs. 27).  
“Now if Job expects to be ‘in his flesh’ when he confronts the Godhead, does he think that his meeting will take place on earth before he dies, or does he refer to a post-mortem experience? At first glance the former alternative appears to be defensible…It is claimed that he poet is here anticipating the theophany of Yahweh, through which God appears and meets Job face to face (38:1-42:6) while the sufferer is still alive upon earth. Against this view, and in favor of the post-mortem alternative, other exegetes strongly stress the fact that the sufferer’s consistent prospect in the whole poetic discussion up to this point has been that of his imminent and inevitable death. In addition, the thought of the gô’ēl, especially when it is considered as a reiteration and development of the wish for a mediator (9:33) and of the hope in a heavenly witness (16:19), which in turn presupposes Job’s murder by bloodshed (16:18), points to the conclusion that vss. 25-26a, whatever their exact rendering should be, refer to the final, earthly, bloody act, which is death … If so, Job faced a situation more paradoxical than ever: On the one hand, he was convinced that he would see God after his death; on the other hand, he knew that in Sheol human existence is no longer what might be called ‘life’ (14:20-21) and that there is for a dead man no hope of returning to earth (7:10; 14:7-15), yet he believed that in some way (probably hinted at in the now corrupt vs. 26a) he would receive new flesh for the specific purpose of the divine-human interview. This flash of expectation has nothing to do with the Greek belief in the natural immortality of the soul, nor is it to be confused with the later Jewish-Christian belief in a bodily resurrection effecting entrance into eternal life. It is merely the dying thought that he, Job, in order to be enabled to plead his defense before God, will again be made fully alive, that his personality will be endowed with the concreteness, the substantial reality, the ‘carnal’ vitality and vigor of complete existence of a man breathing upon earth, not the shadowlike tenuousness and impassibility of the dead in Sheol.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1054-1056)  
-27. “that I will envision to myself,
and my eyes see, and not a stranger’s.”  
“The prospect of meeting the Deity is so portentous, and at the same time so stirring to the imagination of the hero, that he feels compelled to repeat his conviction (vs. 27ab); and he cannot repress a lyrical outcry of his impatience (vs. 27c). The translation Whom I shall see on my side (RSV [Revised Standard Version], after Duhm, Budde, Driver and Gray, Kissane, et al.) is most unnatural. Such a rendering of the preposition and pronoun לי [LeeY], for myself, cannot be supported from texts like Gen. 31:42; Pss. 46:2; 56:10; 118:7; 124:2, where the preposition is constructed either with the verb ‘to be’ or with a predicate which presupposes the verbal copula. It also disregards the Masoretic accentuation (maqqēph5 and daghesh forte conjunctivum). The correct rendering is the traditional one, Whom I shall see for myself (KJV, RSV mg. [margin]), which recognizes in the word לי a variation of the dative ethicus6 , well known in biblical Hebrew (see not only the many examples with the imperative, but also the close parallels of Isa. 36:8…). Job says literally, linking vs. 27a to 26b, ‘Whom I, even I, shall see for myself.’ Indeed, Job insists, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another (vs. 27b). He is overwhelmed by the utter novelty … of his conviction. As if he needed to reassure himself while new doubts harass him, or perhaps because he perceives the bewildered incredulity of his listeners, Job insists that the man who will see God will not be ‘a stranger’ … some dead being ‘estranged’ from himself and not identical with his present personality – a mere shade of his present self – but on the contrary, the very same individual who is now passing through the travails of theological parturition. Such an insistence would be superfluous, and indeed incomprehensible, were the hero thinking of an earth and ante-mortem experience.” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1056-1057)  
Consumed [כלו, KahLOo] are my kidneys in my bosom,”  
“His anticipation can hardly be contained. Though my reins be consumed within me (vs. 27c). According to the metaphorical use of the bodily organs which was common among the ancient Semites, the reins designate the most vital and intense part of the body, the seat of vigor, desire, and longing.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1057)  
Elsewhere כליה (KaLeeYah, “kidney”, which, by the way, alliterates with the verb: כלו כליתי KaLOo KeeLYoTha-eeY “Consumed are my kidneys”) is described as the seat of emotions7 ], just as the heart is described as the seat of the intellect.  
“The word translated within me means, lit., ‘in my bosom’… and is usually applied to females (Gen. 16:5; Ruth 4:16; II Sam. 12:3; etc.). Chiefly for this reason some critics wish to correct the Masoretic vocalization of כלו כלתי בחקי from kālû kilyôthay beḥēqî into kālô kullêthî bheḥuqqî, and thus translate, “I am utterly exhausted in my appointed time,’ a suggestion which neither fits common Hebrew usage nor yields clarity of meaning. In fact, Job uses elsewhere (23:12) the word ḥêq as an apparent synonym of qérebh, ‘inward being’ (cf. I Kings 22:35; Eccl. [Ecclesiastes] 7-9). There is no compelling argument against the present form of the M.T. or against the authenticity of the line.” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1057)  
-28. “for you say, ‘What, are we to pursue to Him?’
and [that the] root [of the] word is found in me.
-29. Be afraid [נורו, NOoROo] to yourselves because of [מפני, MeePNaY, “from [the] face of”] a sword,
for hot are iniquities [of] sword,
so that you know that there is judgment.””  
“The last word, šaddîn [in the text] (or šaddûn [in the margin]), is unknown and hard to explain. It is tempting to understand it as a variant of šadday, ‘that [so] you may come to know the Almighty…” (Murphy & MacKenzie, 1990, p. 478)  
“… the text of vs. 29b is highly uncertain. The end of the threat is equally difficult, that you may know there is a judgment (vs. 29c)…  
“Some interpreters find it hard to conceive that Job, ‘immediately after swooning at the anticipation of seeing God’ (Strahan…) … should address his opponents with such vindictiveness…Such an attitude may or may not deserve to be called ‘theologically unsatisfying’; but it is psychologically true to the character of the hero (cf. 13:6-11).” (Terrien, 1954, pp. III 1057-1058)  
Footnotes
1 Piel: Active - The subject does the action of the verb. Meaning - Intensive: quality, quantity, reality (factitive; denominative). QAL and NIPHAL verbs were very simple, but the opposite is true with Piel and Pual verbs. They are extremely difficult even for the advanced scholar. These verbs are intensive in nature, but the intensification happens in one of four ways:  
-1. Quality: Something becomes stronger
-2. Quantity: Something becomes greater
-3. Reality: It is made reality  
a. Denominative verbs are verbs made from nouns. When a man harpoons a whale he merely uses a harpoon.
b. Factitive: An act is received by an object. The navy made him a man.
-4. Simple: Words were often used in this form and eventually the meaning was lost. The Israelites stopped using the QAL/NIPHAL forms and only used the PIEL/PUAL of some words. www.dabar.org  
2 An Abstract Substantive is the name of an attribute regarded in our minds as having an actual and independent existence. Abstract Substantive definition.html  
3 “Taking the expression skin of my teeth in the physical sense, one might argue in an entirely different direction. Although the teeth of an adult are not covered by skin the teeth of infants are protected against lactate acids by a cutaneous tissue called Nasmyth’s membrane, which wears out after the weaning process. If this fact had been known to the learned poet (who reveals throughout the book an astoundingly wide and accurate acquaintance with natural phenomena), one could suggest the following interpretation: The skin of [his] teeth is for Job the symbol of his childhood innocence…” (Terrien, 1954, p. III 1048)  
4 Theophany (from Ancient Greek (ἡ) θεοφάνεια theophaneia, meaning "appearance of a god") refers to the appearance of a deity to a human or other being. - Wikipedia  
5 Maqqēph (מַקֵּף‎ i.e. binder) is a small horizontal stroke between the upper part of two words which so connects them that in respect of tone and pointing they are regarded as one, and therefore have only one accent. Two, three, or even four words may be connected in this way, e.g. כָּל־אָדָ֫ם‎ [KoL ‘aDaM] every man, אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֫שֶׂב ‎[‘eTh KoL `aSeB] every herb , אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ‎ [‘eTh KoL ‘aSheR LO] all that he had.  
Certain monosyllabic prepositions and conjunctions, such as אֶל־‎ ['eL] to, עַד־‎ [`aD] until, עַל־‎ [`aL] upon, עִם־‎ [`eeM] with, אַל־‎ [‘aL] “do not”, אִם־‎ [‘eeM] if, whether, מִן־‎ [MeeN] from, פֶּן־‎ [PeN] lest, are almost always found with a following Maqqēph, provided they have not become independent forms by being combined with prefixes, e.g. מֵעַל‎ [M’aL*, "from upon"], מֵעִם‎ [*MaeeM, "from with], in which case *Maqqēph as a rule does not follow. - wikisource.org/wiki/Gesenius%27_Hebrew_Grammar  
6 ethical dative ‎- a form of the dative case applied to pronouns to show a certain interest felt by the person indicated.
Examples:  
Knock me on this door.
I'll rhyme you so eight years together, —Shakespeare, As You Like It, 3.2  
Knock me at this gate. —Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew, 1.2
wiktionary.org  
7 HALOT - 4475 כִּלְיָה [4476] (Hebrew) (page 480) (Strong 3629)
-1. lit. [literally], as physical organ,
a. of man, only poet. [poetically], as created by י׳ [Y' - abbreviation for YHVH] Psalm 139:13; as the most sensitive and vital part, in metaph. [metaphor] of one wounded by י׳'s arrows Jb [Job] 16:13, La [Lamentations] 3:13.  
b. of sacrificial animals, offered as choice part to י׳ Lv [Leviticus] 3:4.  
-2. fig. [figuratively], as seat of emotion and affection Jb 19:27, Pr [Proverbs] 23:16, Psalm 16:7, 73:21; וְרָחוֹק מִכּ׳ קָרוֹב אַתָּה בְּפִיהֶם [VeRaHOQ MeeK [abbreviation] QaROB ‘aThaH BePheeYHeM] Je [Jeremiah] 12:2 near art thou in their mouth, and far from their affections; hence, as involving character, the obj. [object] of God's examination - http://www.bibleworks.com/
 
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2019.06.27 04:02 whatismoo Book Review: Northern Fury: H-Hour

Spoilers for this and other books (mainly Ralph Peters' Red Army, and Clancy's Red Storm Rising) throughout so, y'know, be warned.
Here's the amazon link and back-of-the-book-blurb
August 1991. Soviet hardliner Pavel Medvedev knows that only bloodshed can save the USSR from complete collapse. With violence breaking out in the streets of Moscow. few realize that he is piloting the Soviet Union on a collision course with its deadliest enemy yet: NATO. US Marine Colonel Robert Buckner. passed over for a coveted command. takes a post working for Vice Admiral Falkner on his way to retirement. As the world lurching towards World War Ill. he finds his way towards a panoramic view of the unfolding crisis with a pivotal role to play. War breaks out across the globe. but the pin falls in the far north. where soldiers and civilians alike must battle not just the enemy. but the unforgiving elements. With arsenals of high-tech weapons loosed in both directions. the ultimate reward may not be victory. but survival. H-Hour is the first book of the Northern Fury series. which tells the alternate history of World War III's northern front through the eyes of those who lived it.
This book is 619 pages. The war starts on page 313. You'll note that this is just over half way through. The first half of the book is spent setting up the war, which involves a great deal of the "pronoun game" and characters saying "now let me tell you the plan..." and then the authors neglect to tell the reader the plan while the rest of the characters in the scene marvel at the brilliance of the idea. This is bad writing. It also involves a great deal of alternate history. Medvedev (Not Dmitri Anatolyevich) heads the hard liner coup against Gorby in 1991, and succeeds, then represses his way to victory against the secession movements, and magics the economy to be fixed. I'm not a political scientist or economist, so I can't tell you if that is realistic, but it certainly strains my disbelief. Personally, I think the "why" of Cold War Gone Hot novels is almost universally the weakest part. Peters' Red Army succeeds in part because it doesn't focus on why the war starts, but how the characters experience it as it happens.
There are some fundamental failures of understanding regarding the Soviet view of nuclear weapons. A high level politburo member states that "all our traditional war plans call for the use of these [atomic] weapons on the battlefield." This had not been true, per-se, since the mid-1980s at latest. The Soviet General Staff, per Hines' "Soviet Intentions 1968-1985", believed that a war could be fought and won against NATO in Europe with purely conventional weapons as early as 1981. This was not a body typified by flights of wild fancy. In 1993 this statement is close to 15 years out of date. The Soviets were far more loath to initiate nuclear weapons use than NATO, in large part due to nuclear weapons' ability to even the Soviet conventional superiority over NATO.
Speaking of writing, the authors don't do that very well. There is an absolute ton of telling, rather than showing. Characters are cardboard cutouts, and don't really have arcs. They exist as automatons to propel the plot forwards, and there's so many they never really get fleshed out. The ones who do get some characterization aren't amazingly likable. Medvedev, our Soviet Premier du jour, is violent, power hungry, opportunistic, and honestly seems like a caricature. The woman US Navy helicopter pilot, Abby Savage, is also a caricature. The authors made her quite unlikable, despite the innate righteousness of her complaints. She wants to fly an anti-submarine helicopter, but The Man (TM) won't let her. So far, the resolution for this narrative tension is that every chapter, if not every page, from her viewpoint takes the time to constantly remind the reader how degrading her job is. This whole facet of her characterization as of now only serves to remind the reader of the mediocre prose, and poor pacing/plotting.
I presume that the VDV officers, Romanov and his Political Officer (a poorly understood role I will address later in this review) Sviashenik, are supposed to be a humanizing core, but their main virtues in this role seem to be that the ham-fistedly named Romanov is devoutly Russian Orthodox, Sviashenik is a secular Jew, and neither particularly likes communism. Frankly, the relationship between Gordunov (VDShV Battalion Commander) and Levin (his Deputy Commander for Political Affairs) in Red Army is far more compelling. It was fascinating to see Gordunov's view of Levin evolve from barely contained contempt to a begrudging respect, while Levin experiences the horror and trauma of war, the senselessness and violence. It breaks him, just as it broke Gordunov. It's gut-wrenching to read. Romanov and Sviashenik are just kind of there. Khitrov, the mind behind the Soviet plan, is an incompetent psycopathic madman more akin to Joachim Peiper, Otto Skorzeny, or Lev Mekhlis than an educated Colonel from Spetsgruppa-Alfa. So let's take this opportunity to discuss that plan.
Khitrov's plan is foolish. He begins with a large and orchestrated series of car and truck bombings against civilian targets in the Continental United States and Canada. Simultaneous to this are several cruise missile attacks against American ports, taking advantage of OSCAR-I, OSCAR-II, CHARLIE-I, and CHARLIE-II anti-shipping cruise missile submarines. This would normally be enough of a challenge, moving significant submarine forces up next to the US Seaboard in time of crisis, but the plan goes further, as the Soviets manage to sneak a number of pilots, bombenavigators, and electronics (the radar out of a fighter jet) and the communications equipment from a "Bear" bomber, and stuff it all into a Piper Cherokee. How they power all this is beyond me. Now, a sane person might imagine that if you're lobbing big expensive cruise missiles at a harbor, you might want to shoot at the enemy's Navy, but no, Khitrov's plan is to sink a gaggle of merchant and passenger vessels. I guess he didn't remember the Lusitania. Also, the Soviets drop sea-mines in New York Harbor.
What does this achieve? Well, the Soviets understood that the most decisive period of a war was the initial period. What happens right at the start of a war can have outsize effects. This aligns with the Prussian maxim that wars are best kept "Kurtz und vives" (short and lively). Examples would be German campaigns 1939-40, the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia and Hungary, the 1991 Gulf War, etc. Therefore, it is important, in the Soviet view, to make appropriate use of the resources available to maximize their effects. This is especially true in light of several other Soviet views. The USSR understood that the US, and the West as a whole, had a far greater economic potential and population than the USSR. They understood that they would lose a long war of attrition, as that would allow the USA to economically mobilize and grind the USSR into paste with the arsenal of democracy, much as we did the Germans. They wanted to fight a short and decisive war making most efficient use of their more limited resources. Wasting these resources on indiscriminate attacks against civilian targets is questionable. Attacking civilian targets on the wrong side of the Atlantic, with limited to no effect on the American capacity to reinforce forces in Europe is counter productive. In just the New York attacks, at least a company of Special Forces, 24 heavy anti-ship missiles, and 8 medium anti-ship missiles are wasted on civilian targets. Anyone with a brain between their ears would understand that this would do nothing but provoke the American public to support a ceaseless crusade against the attacker until their leadership, people, and nation have been destroyed. We did it in Afghanistan, Germany, Japan, and Iraq. This failure to understand the United States is the reason strategic command in the Soviet Union was centralized in the General Staff, and not passed off to random disgruntled Spetsnaz Colonels with personality disorders.
That said, there are some parts of the plan which fit within the Soviet way of war. The decapitation of the Norwegian gov't was an excellent choice, though it should likely have been supplemented by attacks on AF North Headquarters at the Kolsas Bunker Complex. The actions of Soviet SOF to delay Norwegian reinforcements is also reasonable, though their insertion method (as Olympic athletes) is questionable. There is no mention of the various Northern and Baltic fleet Spetsnaz units, especially the Detached Reconnaissance teams, who were tasked with strikes against Norwegian/NATO SOSUS and Radar infrastructure in Finnmark and Troms.
There are several questionable features to the air campaign against the RNoAF.
  • At one point (p.322) the authors state that radio waves move at the speed of sound.
  • Missile avoidance in the book is more related to Ace Combat than any real life tactic. Missiles, which don't need to keep a pilot from blacking out, can turn far harder then jets.
  • Bandit (hostile radar contact) and Bogey (unknown radar contact) are used interchangeably.
  • The patter from the AWACS operators is not formatted correctly.
  • Alta Airport, with a 7300 foot runway, is ignored as a potential dispersal field.
  • Despite the authors' claims, the F-16A lacks thrust reversers. The Norwegian F-16s have drag parachutes.
  • The Soviets do not re-pain vehicles for winter camouflage, which is not in line with their practices in real life.
  • Stavka doesn't mean "General Staff", it means High Command.
  • VVS was retiring the Mig-23 in the late 80s, why they're in service in the 90s is beyond me. They also behave like early export models, limited to 4g with poor missiles, instead of the 8.5g capable, agile, and well armed MiG-23MLD.
  • The Soviets seem to forget that Anti-Radar Missiles exist, and they had quite a few of them.
  • The SCUD-D is used, instead of the SS-23 SPIDEOTR-23 Oka for reasons unknown. Furthermore, a small number (6) are used against 6 targets, with the result that one misses. This target then survives 18h. This is a patently stupid way to use these missiles. It is common practice to target enough missiles on each target to ensure destruction even if one or more malfunctions. Beyond that, the use of only 6 missiles (one Battalion), when the 6th Combined Arms Army has the 6th Missile Brigade with three Battalions, in Murmansk Oblast. Why there was not an immediate reload-refire on the target, which should take no more than an hour or two with the SS-1e SCUD-D, or about a half hour with the SS-23 Spider, is beyond me.
  • VVS is Frontal Aviation, one of three (ish) Soviet Air Arms, along side PVO (air defence) and A-VMF (Naval Aviation). Mitroshenko is stated to be VVS flying a Su-27 out of Kilp Yavr Airbase. There was a Su-27 unit at Kilp-Yavr, but it was PVO, the 941st Fighter Aviation Regiment, PVO.
  • The Flanker is called an "interceptor" but it is an Air Superiority Fighter, in Soviet parlance a Frontline Fighter. A Soviet interceptor would be the MiG-25, Su-15, MiG-31, and similar.
  • Su-24 Fencers or Tu-22M2/M3 Backfires should probably make an appearance in the tactical support role, rather than the MiG-23 and MiG-27s that are used in the book.
  • The Soviets are using the Beriev A-50 "Mainstay" radar aircraft. Mitroshenko is said to be VVS, but the A-50 was used by PVO. VVS was in the process of procuring the An-71 "Madcap" radar aircraft when the USSR fell. The Soviet Navy was also procuring the Yak-44 radar aircraft for their carriers.
The Soviet Su-27s have missiles that outrange those carried by the Norwegian jets by several dozen miles. The Norwegian jets somehow get into the perfect position to attack the Soviets without being noticed, despite the Soviets having their own airborne radar aircraft, the initiative in launching the action, and a numerical advantage. The Soviets are also opting to sneak in at low level, despite the mentioned technological advantage. The authors also appear not to be aware of the quite superior performance of the AA-11 ArcheR-73 missile, compared to the AIM-9L Sidewinder. It can lock on to targets up to 45 degrees off the boresight of the missile, cued off the radar or the pilot's helmet mounted sight. The AIM-9L on the RNoAF F-16 looks straight forwards. The Norwegians have to point their plane at the Soviets a lot harder than the Soviets have to point at the Norwegians. Furthermore, the R-73 has thrust vectoring while the AIM-9L doesn't. The R-73 is far more maneuverable, and far more likely to get a hit/kill than the AIM-9L in identical engagements.
There's an even more fundamental problem with this plan. The RNoAF only flies F-16A jets. These go about Mach 1.5 and can fly up to 50,000 feet. The Soviet Air Defense Force has MiG-31 interceptors with long ranged AA-9 Amos/R-33 missiles. The MiG-31 flies up to >80,000 feet, and Mach 2.83. The Soviets have no need to fool around with flying jets in low to sneak up and kill the NATO radar aircraft, when they can fly over the Norwegian air force with impunity. Beyond that, the air to air combat feels more related to Ace Combat than reality. The authors are not pilots and it shows. The most valuable assets to a fighter pilot are speed and altitude. Flying low is only useful against radars which are not pulse doppler (look down-shoot down) types. The NATO AWACS is one of those types, so the Soviets, as they often do in this story, are stupidly handicapping themselves for no reason.
When the reader finally slogs their way to ground combat, it is sterile, emotionless, and worst of all, boring. The reader understands what's happening. It is neat, and orderly. I personally have not been attacked by a Soviet combined arms task force, but I would imagine it is a great deal more chaotic. Peters' certainly manages to capture this feeling in Red Army. The confusion of battle, how overwhelming it is. The randomness, chaos, and at times futility. I would point to the passages in Red Army with Gordunov and Levin, as well as Bezarin's portions, as excellent examples of what I mean.
The authors say a few things in the preface. They ask "Why does history seem to rhyme? Why do John Hackett’s and Tom Clancy’s and nearly every other work of Cold War-goes-hot fiction seem to fall into the same familiar patterns?" and then state that:
"...Northern Fury is the story of the people, on both sides, who would have had to fight the war that we here imagine. We have been careful to remain true to the constraints of reality and the details of the military organizations that existed at the end of the Cold War (when ships sink, they will not reappear; when squadrons and regiments are decimated they must be reorganized; one cannot conjure divisions out of thin air), and we think that those “grognards” who care about such things will be pleased with the depth of our research and attention to technical, geographical, and historical accuracy. But the drama of the story comes from the characters, the people, and from their struggles against each other, against geography, and against themselves. And in this respect, we think we have an exciting story to tell."
Working backwards, I take issue with several points made in the second passage quoted above. Northern Fury is not the story of the people involved in this war. The focus of the book, the engine that drives the reader to keep turning the page, is the war. It is not, as it would be in a character driven work, to follow the characters as they change in relation to the events of the plot they experience. The efforts made to be true to the Tables of Organization and Equipment are of middling quality. Much liberty has been taken to augment force structures ahistorically, and the Soviet force structures in the 1988-1991 period were, more than usual, in a state of flux as Gorbachev radically reoriented military policy. Their commitment to detail appears more to be based on what has name recognition (SCUD), modern marketing materials (passive homing R-27), and Hollywood/video game depictions of war than anything else. I am distinctly displeased with the treatment of air combat. The geographical, historical, and technical accuracy is lacking in key areas, and this detail was not sacrificed in the name of storytelling. It appears to be a result of limited and surface level research. Certainly no interaction was made with, even translated, Russian language sources such as Reznichenko's Taktika. The authors website cites the 1984 versions of FM 100-2-1 and FM 100-2-2, which are of limited quality compared to the 1990/1991 updates to these manuals. No use is made of the excellent British Army Field Manual Volume 2, Parts 1, 2, and 3 (1991).
To address the first quote, history seems to rhyme because Hackett, Clancy, and the other 'big' Cold-War-Gone-Hot fiction writers, such as Zaloga and Coyle, all subscribed to the same school of thought. It was one which fundamentally misunderstood the Soviet Army and how they approached war, and did so in ways which benefited NATO's odds. Franz Nauta, in Logistics Implications of Maneuver Warfare, Vol. 5, p. 16, outlines in detail why the underlying principals of Hackett's scenario are deeply flawed. Lt. Col. LeRoy Outlaw's "Red Storm Rising: A Primer for Conventional War in Europe" notes that, given the unrealistic behaviors and handicaps imposed on the Soviets, "one must question how it would have been possible for NATO to fail." History, in this case, rhymes because of stereotype and wishful thinking.
The authors set out to write a Cold War Gone Hot Novel. Typically these works balance mediocre prose with a slavish, almost pornographic attention to detail and technical accuracy. Hackett's Third World War is dry and goes on forever, Clancy includes an Icelandic romance plot that is as uncomfortable as it is unnecessary. The genre's saving grace has always been the technological fetishism, where authors and readers alike can salivate over the latest whiz-bang gadgetry as it blows someone or other to pieces.
This contrasts with Ralph Peters' Red Army, a work which names so few specific designations that you can count them on one hand. It is a character driven novel that truly understands and shows the human element of war. If you are familiar enough with the technology of the period, you can tell what systems Peters is talking about, but to obsess over them misses the point. War is a human endeavor, and as much surface level fun as the shooty-bang-bang technobabble is, it is not a compelling story. Something has gone wrong when a novel about war leaves the reader grasping for reasons to care in the middle of a battle.
Northern Fury: H-Hour claims to be a detail-oriented, compelling novel of a Cold War Gone Hot. I read it expecting the book to live up to these claims. Between sloppy research, mediocre prose, poor characterization, terrible plotting and pacing, and a fundamental failure to understand the core of both the Soviet Way of War and what makes a good novel, I was left disappointed.
If you want a well written, technically accurate, character driven novel about the human element in a hypothetical Cold War Gone Hot, get Red Army.
submitted by whatismoo to WarCollege [link] [comments]


2019.04.21 16:17 2012ronpaul2012 The Jerusalem Council & Kingdom Restoration

In Acts 15 the apostles and elders convened a council in Jerusalem to rule on the status of Gentiles in the Church. After much debate, Peter insisted that Gentile believers need not be circumcised for salvation (Acts 15:11). Then James, to lend scriptural support to this decision, made a startling announcement that the vision of Amos 9:11-12 was taking shape before their eyes: In gathering the Gentiles into the Church, the Lord was rebuilding "the dwelling of David, which has fallen" (Acts 15:16). For many modern readers, the meaning of this prophecy is not immediately clear. What is the dwelling of David? How and when did it fall? In what way is God rebuilding it? These questions lead us back several millennia to the days of David and Solomon in the Old Testament. Once the questions are answered, we will see the unfolding drama of Acts in a whole new light.
The Dwelling of David
The dwelling (tent) of David refers to the kingdom of David pitched in the land of Israel around 1000 B.C. It began with King David himself, whose achievements surpassed that of every judge and king before him: he unified the family of Israel after years of intertribal fighting; he silenced the threats of Israel's enemies; and he transferred the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, making it the spiritual and political capital of his growing empire (2 Sam 1-6). Even more importantly, God swore a solemn covenant oath to make David's family a royal dynasty and to establish his throne for all time (2 Sam 7:8-17; Ps 89:3-4). This was provisionally played out in the life of David's son, Solomon, who succeeded him on the throne and built a glorious Temple for the Lord (1 Kings 1-8). What is striking about the Davidic empire inherited by Solomon is that, for the first time in history, the covenant family of Yahweh stretched to international dimensions. Following the lead of his father (2 Sam 8), Solomon extended his rule not only over the twelve tribes of Israel, but even over neighboring nations in the region (1 Kings 4:20-24). With this unprecedented development, Gentiles such as the Queen of Sheba traveled great distances to learn the wisdom of God from the king of Israel (1 Kings 10:1-13). Space was made in the Temple so pious Gentiles could come and bring praise to Yahweh (1 Kings 8:41-43). It is even possible that the Wisdom literature of the Old Testament, much of which is traditionally attributed to Solomon, was written to instruct these Gentile nations in the ways of righteousness (Prov 1:1; Eccles 1:1; Songs 1:1). Yet for all its greatness, the golden age was not to last. Over time Solomon allowed the attractions of power, pleasure, and prestige to drag him away from the Lord. By 930 B.C., only decades after Yahweh pitched the Davidic kingdom in Israel, it all came crashing down-the tribes of Israel split apart; the Gentiles broke away; the glory departed. Though descendants from David's line continued to rule the southern kingdom of Judah until its demise in the sixth century B.C., the tent of David had already fallen.
Rebuilding the Kingdom of David
From the prophet Amos, however, whose words were taken up by James in Acts 15, the tent of David would not lie collapsed on the ground forever. Yahweh gave his promise to repair, restore, and repitch it in the messianic age (Amos 9:11-12). This is precisely the vision of the Book of Acts as it builds to the full acceptance of the Gentiles at the Jerusalem Council. We see this throughout the book, where the good news of the "kingdom" is central to the preaching of Jesus (Acts 1:3), Philip (Acts 8:12), and Paul (Acts 14:22; 19:8; 20:25; 28:23; 31). We see this is the disciples' final question to Jesus before his departure, where they ask him point-blank when the kingdom will be restored (Acts 1:6). We see this in Peter's inaugural sermon on Pentecost, where he draws on Psalm 16 and 110 to argue that Jesus, the risen and enthroned Messiah, has fulfilled the covenant of eternal kingship that God swore to David (Acts 2:22-36). We see this in Paul's inaugural sermon to Israel, where he assembles passages from Psalm 2, Psalm 16, and Isaiah 55 to make the same point as Peter-that in rising to everlasting life, Jesus is the messianic heir who sits on the throne of David and rules over his restored kingdom (Acts 13:22-37). Lastly, we see this in the missionary progress of the book, where the gospel first raises Judah and Jerusalem to new life (Acts 1-7), then spreads north to the Samaritans, who were descendants of the first Israel tribe that split away from David's empire (Acts 8), and, from the conversion of Cornelius onward, radiates out to nations beyond Israel (Acts 10-28). The vision of an international kingdom gathered around the Davidic Messiah is the same vision set forth in Luke's Gospel (Lk 1:31-33; 2:29-32; 12:32; 22:29-30), and, indeed, in the biblical prophets before him (Ps 72; Is 11:10-13; 16:5; 55:3-5; 66:18-23; Jer 3:17-18; Ezek 37:1-26; Hos 3:5; Zech 2:11; 8:22).
Lest the point be missed or misunderstood, Acts shows us that the restored dwelling of David looks quite different from the original tent propped up in the tenth century B.C. The kingship of Christ is indeed a Davidic kingship, and the throne from which he rules is indeed a Davidic throne (Lk 1:32). Yet the royal empire he establishes in the Church far outshines in glory and grandeur anything accomplished under David and Solomon. The focal point of this new kingdom is no longer a palace in Jerusalem but a throne standing next to the Father, high above in the heavenly Jerusalem. The unity of this kingdom is no longer held together by citizenship and taxes but by the Holy Spirit, who draws believers into one body through the sacraments. The royal ministers of the kingdom are no longer administrators and politicians but apostles and prophets. The borders of this kingdom are no longer extended by military campaigns but by missionary outreach. For readers with eyes to see, the multinational empire of David, uniting Israel and Gentiles together into a single covenant family, was only a scale model of the worldwide kingdom of David's royal heir, Jesus Christ (Rom 1:1-5; 15:7-12).
submitted by 2012ronpaul2012 to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2019.04.21 06:11 2012ronpaul2012 Kingdom Restoration and the Jerusalem Council

In Acts 15 the apostles and elders convened a council in Jerusalem to rule on the status of Gentiles in the Church. After much debate, Peter insisted that Gentile believers need not be circumcised for salvation (Acts 15:11). Then James, to lend scriptural support to this decision, made a startling announcement that the vision of Amos 9:11-12 was taking shape before their eyes: In gathering the Gentiles into the Church, the Lord was rebuilding "the dwelling of David, which has fallen" (Acts 15:16). For many modern readers, the meaning of this prophecy is not immediately clear. What is the dwelling of David? How and when did it fall? In what way is God rebuilding it? These questions lead us back several millennia to the days of David and Solomon in the Old Testament. Once the questions are answered, we will see the unfolding drama of Acts in a whole new light.
The Dwelling of David
The dwelling (tent) of David refers to the kingdom of David pitched in the land of Israel around 1000 B.C. It began with King David himself, whose achievements surpassed that of every judge and king before him: he unified the family of Israel after years of intertribal fighting; he silenced the threats of Israel's enemies; and he transferred the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, making it the spiritual and political capital of his growing empire (2 Sam 1-6). Even more importantly, God swore a solemn covenant oath to make David's family a royal dynasty and to establish his throne for all time (2 Sam 7:8-17; Ps 89:3-4). This was provisionally played out in the life of David's son, Solomon, who succeeded him on the throne and built a glorious Temple for the Lord (1 Kings 1-8). What is striking about the Davidic empire inherited by Solomon is that, for the first time in history, the covenant family of Yahweh stretched to international dimensions. Following the lead of his father (2 Sam 8), Solomon extended his rule not only over the twelve tribes of Israel, but even over neighboring nations in the region (1 Kings 4:20-24). With this unprecedented development, Gentiles such as the Queen of Sheba traveled great distances to learn the wisdom of God from the king of Israel (1 Kings 10:1-13). Space was made in the Temple so pious Gentiles could come and bring praise to Yahweh (1 Kings 8:41-43). It is even possible that the Wisdom literature of the Old Testament, much of which is traditionally attributed to Solomon, was written to instruct these Gentile nations in the ways of righteousness (Prov 1:1; Eccles 1:1; Songs 1:1). Yet for all its greatness, the golden age was not to last. Over time Solomon allowed the attractions of power, pleasure, and prestige to drag him away from the Lord. By 930 B.C., only decades after Yahweh pitched the Davidic kingdom in Israel, it all came crashing down-the tribes of Israel split apart; the Gentiles broke away; the glory departed. Though descendants from David's line continued to rule the southern kingdom of Judah until its demise in the sixth century B.C., the tent of David had already fallen.
Rebuilding the Kingdom of David
From the prophet Amos, however, whose words were taken up by James in Acts 15, the tent of David would not lie collapsed on the ground forever. Yahweh gave his promise to repair, restore, and repitch it in the messianic age (Amos 9:11-12). This is precisely the vision of the Book of Acts as it builds to the full acceptance of the Gentiles at the Jerusalem Council. We see this throughout the book, where the good news of the "kingdom" is central to the preaching of Jesus (Acts 1:3), Philip (Acts 8:12), and Paul (Acts 14:22; 19:8; 20:25; 28:23; 31). We see this is the disciples' final question to Jesus before his departure, where they ask him point-blank when the kingdom will be restored (Acts 1:6). We see this in Peter's inaugural sermon on Pentecost, where he draws on Psalm 16 and 110 to argue that Jesus, the risen and enthroned Messiah, has fulfilled the covenant of eternal kingship that God swore to David (Acts 2:22-36). We see this in Paul's inaugural sermon to Israel, where he assembles passages from Psalm 2, Psalm 16, and Isaiah 55 to make the same point as Peter-that in rising to everlasting life, Jesus is the messianic heir who sits on the throne of David and rules over his restored kingdom (Acts 13:22-37). Lastly, we see this in the missionary progress of the book, where the gospel first raises Judah and Jerusalem to new life (Acts 1-7), then spreads north to the Samaritans, who were descendants of the first Israel tribe that split away from David's empire (Acts 8), and, from the conversion of Cornelius onward, radiates out to nations beyond Israel (Acts 10-28). The vision of an international kingdom gathered around the Davidic Messiah is the same vision set forth in Luke's Gospel (Lk 1:31-33; 2:29-32; 12:32; 22:29-30), and, indeed, in the biblical prophets before him (Ps 72; Is 11:10-13; 16:5; 55:3-5; 66:18-23; Jer 3:17-18; Ezek 37:1-26; Hos 3:5; Zech 2:11; 8:22).
Lest the point be missed or misunderstood, Acts shows us that the restored dwelling of David looks quite different from the original tent propped up in the tenth century B.C. The kingship of Christ is indeed a Davidic kingship, and the throne from which he rules is indeed a Davidic throne (Lk 1:32). Yet the royal empire he establishes in the Church far outshines in glory and grandeur anything accomplished under David and Solomon. The focal point of this new kingdom is no longer a palace in Jerusalem but a throne standing next to the Father, high above in the heavenly Jerusalem. The unity of this kingdom is no longer held together by citizenship and taxes but by the Holy Spirit, who draws believers into one body through the sacraments. The royal ministers of the kingdom are no longer administrators and politicians but apostles and prophets. The borders of this kingdom are no longer extended by military campaigns but by missionary outreach. For readers with eyes to see, the multinational empire of David, uniting Israel and Gentiles together into a single covenant family, was only a scale model of the worldwide kingdom of David's royal heir, Jesus Christ (Rom 1:1-5; 15:7-12).
submitted by 2012ronpaul2012 to C_S_T [link] [comments]


2019.03.11 15:08 jm434 Book Spoliers. Finished rewatching the show, here are my random thoughts.

To preface I have not read the books, but I have read their plot summaries so I welcome mixed book/show discussion as I've already spoiled myself.
Chracters wise, I'm not a fan of Holden or Naomi. Holden flips between the extremes of holier than thou and 'seeing red' and it annoys me to no end that he's the central character. Naomi is big fat hypocrite. Alex and Amos are the best and if the Roci crew was the 2 of them along with Prax and Anna I'd be in heaven. Generally i dislike religious characters but Anna is a rare exception and I think she would really fit in as part of the crew. Bobbie is a great character but a terrible representation of the military. Drummer, Dawes and Ashford are top notch and I want more of them. I enjoyed Miller more as the Investigator though I was rooting for him when he killed Dresdon. Errinwright and Mao were great villains and Avasarala is a badass bitch that gets shit done and all her scenes are great. I dont feel that Clarissa's redemption is earned considering what she did and I don't think I'll enjoy her becoming part of the crew and pairing up with Amos.
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2019.03.04 17:51 paulwalker80 Just get used to it now: Howard is gone. However, embrace the future.

I know the ink has not been placed on paper. I know it will take awhile to dry. I know a lot of y'all will complain for some time.
Our Bears will likely trade Jordan Howard. As for what they trade for, well, I am optimistic.
Regarding the off-season, the Bears have addressed continuity on the O-line. That is more important than you think. There are three other things that will be observed: 1) Whether Callahan resigns 2) Whether Amos resigns 3) Trading Howard and getting out of a bad future contract.
We have to wait until between tomorrow and 13 March to determine whether the first two will be franchised. I think the Bears will be able to resign one of the two, possibly both if the market does not work out.
Now, regarding RB, Nagy's offense is based off of unpredictable playcalling. I know, this is obvious, but with Jordan Howard, no matter how good he is between the tackles, he is a predictable player -either pass-blocking or a simple non-complicated run. He is due for a contract next year, and we know the Bears won't pony up for him. There will be drama in a young team that is being run right with the staff. That is counterproductive as well. Regarding Cohen, he is valuable in many ways, but his size limits him in the NFL from being a three-down back. Nagy probably views him as a Tyreek Hill type in open space, but can take a few runs to keep them honest. All the above said, Cohen's strength is designed plays and unpredictability. Howard going in and out of the game, believe it or not, makes Cohen more predictable for the play.
Of note, I noticed something with New Orleans this year. Ingram was catching more balls out of the backfield (this hurt me in fantasy since I had Kamara, but you get the point). Their offense wanted unpredictability between the backs.
As far as a replacement is concerned for Howard, it is too easy to draft a stud, do-it-all RB in the third round (and have the value of a rookie contract). I trust the scouting reports more and more these days, especially if Nagy and Pace were involved.
The Bears NEED to trade Jordan Howard, in order to prevent contract drama, keep the clubhouse right, establish more unpredictability in the offense, keep the salaries balanced for the team, and increase the value for Tarik Cohen and Mitch Trubisky. Remember, Mitch running the ball can be deadly for the other team too (just ask the Patriots). For a good sense too, the great teams are not paying RB's major swells of money.
The point is that the team already knows this, but we need to embrace it and get excited. There are sneaky good moves that are made which propels teams further. We are in a championship window. It's not about one player. It's about a team and a modern-team, at that (btw, be glad we are modern now. If I really wanted to make you cry about how antiquated we were, I would just have you reminisce play-calling from three individuals: Mike Martz, Lovie Smith, and John Fox). Embrace your good future.
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2019.01.06 00:07 bikingfencer Proverbs - introductions

Proverbs  
Introductions from Fritsch and Clarke  
The Interpreter’s Bible, volume IV, Charles T. Fritsch  
The book of Proverbs belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. To this literary genre also belong Job, Ecclesiastes, and some of the psalms (e.g., 1; 19; 37; 49; 73; 112; 119; 127; 128; 133) in the Old Testament; Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon in the Apocrypha; and Pirke Aboth in later Judaism…  
I. Wisdom Literature in the Ancient Near East  
Numerous contacts with the wisdom literature of other lands and with the men who produced it are mentioned in the Old Testament. Balaam son of Beor, who uttered the oracles found in Num. [Numbers] 23-24, ‘was really a north-Syrian diviner from the Euphrates Valley’ [Albright 1944]. In I Kings we read: ‘Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the people of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was wiser than all other men, wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, Calcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol…’ In this passage at least three extra-Israelitish sources of wisdom are mentioned: the Bedouin Arabs of the East, the land of Egypt, and the sons of Mahol, who were Edomite sages. The wisdom of Edom is again referred to in Jer. [Jeremiah] 49:7 and Obad. [Obadiah] 8. Job and his friends were of non-Israelite extraction, most of them coming from Edom. And the proper name ‘Massa’ in Prov. [Proverbs] 30:1; 31:1 may point to an Arabian milieu for those sections. Thus we can see that the Hebrews were familiar with the wisdom of Babylonia, Syria, Edom, Arabia, and Egypt.  
Not only were they familiar with these various wisdom literatures, but they actually borrowed quite extensively from them. It is now known that substantial parts of Proverbs are borrowed directly from Phoenician or Canaanite sources. Not only is the conception of hypostatized[1] wisdom, found in Prov. 8-9, of Canaanite origin, but many phrases and words throughout the book can now be traced to Phoenician and especially Ugaritic sources.  
It has long been recognized that there are many close parallels between the wisdom literatures of Israel and Babylonia… The Babylonian wisdom literature consists mainly of the Babylonian Job, a title bestowed upon the work because of its close similarity with the Hebrew Job, The Babylonian Book of Proverbs, with its frequently recurring phrase, ‘my son,’ so common in certain sections of Hebrew Proverbs, and the Proverbs of Aḥikar, a part of the Story of Aḥikar, which ultimately came from Mesopotamia. Between Proverbs and these Babylonian sources W. O. E. Oesterley records over fifty parallels and similarities in thought and words.

Let your foot be seldom in your neighbor’s house,
lest he become weary of you and hate you (Prov. 25:17).  
My son, let not thy foot run after thy friend,
Lest he be surfeited with thee and hate thee (Aḥikar)…

… both sides drew from a common source and adapted the material to their own culture.  
There is much more extant Egyptian wisdom literature than Babylonian, and its influence on Hebrew wisdom literature is much stronger. By far the most important wisdom book from Egypt is The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, written some time after the eighth century B.C. Deuteronomy and Psalms have words and expressions in common with this, but it is in Proverbs that is influence is most strongly felt. …

Do not rob the poor, because he is poor,
or crush the afflicted at the gate (Prov. 22:22).  
Beware of robbing the poor
And of oppressing the afflicted (Amen-em-ope).

… when the Hebrews did utilize outside sources, they made them completely their own…  
II. The Wise Men  
The cultural life of Israel was molded by three groups of leaders: the prophets, the priests, and the wise men (cf. Jer. 18:18)… they were simply earnest seekers of the good life, and it was their aim to teach their disciples what that good life was.  
Their origin as a distinct class is probably to be associated with the scribes in governmental service. This was the case both in Egypt and Babylonia, where the wise men were state functionaries who were skilled in writing, the science of government, and the manners and morals of the day. In the Old Testament the scribes are mentioned several times as governmental officials. According to II Sam. [Samuel] 8:17, Seraiah the scribe is one of David’s important officers of state. Similar notices are recorded in II Sam… In II Kings 22:3-7 the scribe Shaphan is described as a kind of minister of finance, and in Jer. 36:20-21 it appears as though Elishama the scribe had charge of the state archives. In Jer. 8:8-9 the scribes and the wise men are actually equated…  
… The reference to ‘the wisdom of their wise men’ in Isa. [Isaiah] 29:14 shows that these men must have existed as a class long before the middle of the eighth century B.C. By the time of Jeremiah the ‘counsel’ of the wise was on a par the ‘law’ of the priest and the ‘word’ of the prophet (Jer. 18:18).  
Strangely enough, the first person with the distinctive title of ‘wise’ in the Old Testament is a woman from Tekoa, the home of the prophet Amos (II Sam. 14:1-20). Another wise woman is mentioned in the story recorded in II Sam. 20:14-22. King Solomon is, of course, the wise man par excellence among the Israelites…  

It is almost impossible to understand how such encomiums could be heaped upon one who made so many foolish mistakes throughout his life in every realm….  
… the wise man… was a familiar figure in Israel’s life from the earliest times to the Maccabean period. We find two vivid pictures of these wise men in wisdom literature, one belonging to the earlier, the other to the later period when they had set up their schools and their teachings were firmly establish. This first one is found in Job 29:7-25…  
When the ear heard it, it called me blessed,
and when the eye saw it, it approved;
because I delivered the poor who cried,
and fatherless who had none to help him.
The blessing of him who was about to perish came upon me,
And I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy.

The second picture, from Ecclus. [Ecclesiasticus] 39:1-11, is of a wise man who lived about 180 B.C. He was wise in the ways of the world, yet devout in his religious practices:

He will travel though the lands of strange peoples,
And test what is good and what is evil among men.

The teaching of the wise men was directed to the youth of the nation. It was done orally in public places (Prov. 1:20-21) and privately to individuals… Perhaps Isa. 55:1 is a taunt of the prophet against the wise men for charging fees. The prophets, as we know from Isa. 29:14; Jer. 8:9, were not too kindly disposed toward the wise men. After the early period, when the wisdom of the sages was given forth at the city gate to those who would hear it, there arose places of instruction where the teacher would sit with his pupils and proclaim his wisdom. These were called the bêth hammidhrāsh, i.e., ‘the house of instruction’ or ‘school,’ and the yeshîbhāh, i.e., the ‘scholar’s session,’ or ‘academy.’ There the students came to learn those maxims and principles which would guide them successfully through life. After the Maccabean struggle the purely ethical teachings of the wise men became less popular with the anti-Hellenistic religious leaders of the day, and so the wise men gradually disappeared from Jewish life. Many of their teachings and functions were carried on by the scribes of later Judaism.  
III. Types of Hebrew Wisdom Literature  
A. Māshāl. - This word is usually translated ‘proverb,’ … but it has many other meanings, as its use in the Old Testament reveals. Its etymology and original meaning have not been definitely established. Most scholars hold the view that the root meaning is ‘to be like,’ from which the basic idea of ‘likeness,’ ‘comparison’ is derived for the noun…

Like vinegar to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes,
so is the sluggard to those who send him (Prov. 10:26)

As used in the Old Testament, māshāl has a variety of meanings. First of all it designates a popular proverbial saying… these short statements may have originally contained a comparison, but later on any short saying which contained a general popular truth came to be called a māshāl.

… māshāl, as used in the title of Proverbs, means the ethical aphorism poem, and essay, the final and peerless product of the wise man’s consummate skill. Starting with the popular proverb as a pattern, the sages of Israel developed the finely polished, succinctly worded ethical proverb which predominates in this book. To test their abilities even further they composed intricate acrostic poems such as the one on the good wife in 31:10-31, or sublime philosophical essays, such as the one on wisdom in 8:22-31. The philosophical drama, as represented by Job, with its penetrating insights and breathless, panoramic outreaching of the heart and mind of man, is the literary zenith of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
B. Riddle. - … The best example of the riddle is found in Judg. [Judges] 14:14:  
‘And he said to them,
“Out of the eater came something to eat.
Out of the strong came something sweet.”
And they could not in three days tell what the riddle was.’…  
C. Fable. - The well-known fable of the trees recorded in Judg. 9:7-21, also belongs to the wisdom literature of Israel. Another one is found in II Kings 14:9. To the parables already mentioned in Ezekiel should be added the parable of the prophet Nathan (II Sam. 12:1-6) and the one recorded in I Kings 20:39-40.  
*IV. Wisdom in the Old Testament *
A. The Pragmatic and Religious Origins.- The usual Hebrew word for wisdom is hokhmāh, which seems to have the primary sense of ‘firm,’ ‘fixed,’ and then ‘something which controls or restrains.’ … It was that native intelligence or shrewdness by which man performed his tasks skillfully and well… It is applied to women who were professional wailers… And in Prov. 30:24-28 wisdom is ascribed even to small animals such as ants, conies, locusts, and lizards with their amazing instincts and prowess. Thus wisdom for the Hebrew was a pragmatic empirical thing, not speculative or philosophical… as Israel fell heir to the common, practical wisdom of the Near East, she used it in her own inimitable way, setting it in her own peculiar context which instinctively related it to God… Israel redeemed the pagan wisdom of her day and made it theocentric.

Wisdom is synonymous with moral and religious intelligence; it is filled with a strongly ethical content.  
This union of practical wisdom with moral intelligence is expressed by the familiar motto, ‘The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge’ (1:7… ps. 111:10…)… wisdom became equated with the law, which was the highest expression of wisdom in later Judaism.

B. The Personification of Wisdom. – Another interesting and widely significant development in the conception of wisdom was its personification and hypostatization. The Hebrew was fond of personifying the things he saw about him. For instance, the prophet says that  
The mountains and the hills before you
Shall break forth into singing,
And all the trees of the field shall clap their hands. (Isa. 55:12).  
This tendency to personify led the Hebrew to personalize abstract ideas and principles… The next step naturally was to regard wisdom as a distinct or separate personality or hypostasis.  
… The first glimmer of the personification of wisdom is found in Job 28.  
Whence then cometh wisdom?
And where is the place of understanding?
Seeing it is hid from the eyes of all living,
And kept close from the birds of the heavens.
Destruction and Death say,
We have heard a rumor thereof with our ears.  
...
In Proverbs … 1:20-21 wisdom is depicted as crying forth her words of invitation in the busy city marts:  
Wisdom cries aloud in the street;
in the markets she raises her voice;
On the top of the walls she cries out;
at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:  
“How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple?
How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing
and fools hate knowledge?”  

In chs. 8-9 is reached the highest stage in the personification of wisdom in the canonical books… In vss. 22-31 wisdom is so distinctly personalized that it is well on the way to being hypostatized. She was brought forth before the world was, and was present at the Creation, watching and sporting before God as he did his work, “delighting in the sons of men” (8:31).  
In the apocryphal wisdom books the personification of wisdom is still further developed. …

And a spotless mirror of the activity of God,
And a likeness of his goodness.
Though she is one, she can do all things…

And the words of Wisd. Sol. [Wisdom of Solomon] 7:25-26 are so noble and sublime that the writer of Hebrews uses them almost verbatim to describe the wonder and beauty of our matchless Lord… This is the last stage in the hypostatization of wisdom. Even Philo goes no farther. Wisdom is now ready to take its place with the Spirit and Logos as a great intermediary power between God and man. But even beyond that, in Pauline theology, wisdom is identified with Christ, the only saving, divine wisdom through whom redemption can come into the world, as against the worldly wisdom of the Greeks. …  
V. Date and Authorship  
In order to determine the date and authorship of Proverbs one must first of all consider the date and authorship of the individual collections of which it is composed. …  

Section I (The Excellence of Wisdom, 1:1-9:18) … Most scholars hold a postexilic date for this part of the book, mainly because of the highly developed essay style, and the personification of wisdom… which they believe as due to Hellenistic influence. But it is now quite certain that chs. [chapters] 8-9 are one of the oldest parts of the book, since they are of undisputed Phoenician origin, while many words and grammatical peculiarities throughout the whole section point to strong Ugaritic and Phoenician influence. Therefore to ascribe a Solomonic origin to this collection may not have been as groundless as many have supposed…  
Section II (The Proverbs of Solomon, 10:1-22:16) is the core of the book. The 375 proverbs consist of two lines each, except 19:7… In chs. 10-15 they are mostly antithetic; in 16:1-22:16 only 33 out of 191 proverbs are antithetic. There seems to be no logical arrangement of the proverbs… Quite few verses and half verses are repeated in this collection, as the following list shows: 10:1=15:20…  
Section III (The Sayings of the Wise, 22:17-24:34) … Since certain of these proverbs show close affinity with the Egyptian wisdom book, The Teaching of Amen-em-ope, which was compiled somewhere between 800 and 600 B.C., the heart of this section can safely be regarded as pre-exilic in origin.  
Section IV (Second Collection of Solomon’s Proverbs, 25:1-29:27) … This collection is said to have been edited by the men of Hezekiah (25:1), a statement which is generally accepted as authentic… The collection may be dated near the end of the eighth century B.C.  
The authors of Sections V (The Words of Agur, 30:1-33), VI (The Words of Lemuel, 31:1-9), and VII (the Good Wife – an acrostic poem – 31:1-31) are unknown. Agur and Lemuel are non-Israelitish rulers, probably of the Arabian tribe of Massa, east of Palestine… They are generally considered to be postexilic…  
…Aramaisms may point to a later date for those proverbs in which they occur. The reference to the law and vision (prophecy) in 29:18… indicates a date long after Ezra for these verses. So that even though the bulk of the material in every section is pre-exilic, the final form of the book, as we know it, was not attained until some time after 400 B.C.  
VI. Text and Style  
The Hebrew text of Proverbs is in fairly good condition. To be sure, there are errors, difficulties, and corruptions, but in comparison with books like I and II Samuel or Hosea, Proverbs has suffered little in the course of transmission. The most serious textual difficulties [are those in which] the Hebrew text is meaningless and emendations, as pointed out in the Exegesis, are purely conjectural. Then, too, there are individual words which defy explanation because they are entirely unknown or not understandable… These examples point to the remarkable persistence of the consonantal Hebrew text in the course of transmission, even though the words and sentences had long lost their meaning to the Jewish scribe.  
The aid of outside sources in determining the meaning of difficult or unknown words has been applied to Proverbs with marked success. Egyptian wisdom sources, for instance, have clarified the difficult shlshwm in 22:20… and Ugaritic material has already given the clue to the meaning of two expressions in 21:9 and 26:23… with the promise of more aid in the future.  
The Septuagint is the most valuable ancient version from the study of Proverbs. It must be used with caution, however, in correcting the Hebrew text, since its own text is impaired by corruptions and peculiar modes of translation… Many times the Hebrew is freely translated, revealing ignorance on the part of the translator of the Hebrew word or idiom, or an attempt to mold the material into the theological or philosophical position of the person or persons translating…  
Proverbs is written in poetic style. That is, each verse is characterized by the parallelism of its members, or stichs, and by a certain number of beats or accents – usually three or four – in those stichs. Paronomasia[2] also plays an important role in the literary structure of the book. The couplet composed of two stichs, is the most common form of the proverb. The three main types of parallelism in Proverbs are;  
-1. Synonymous, in which the two stichs express the same idea in slightly different ways.
Does not wisdom call,
Does not understanding raise her voice? (8:1.)  
-2. Antithetic, in which the truth of the first stich is contrastingly stated in the second:

In the path of righteousness is life,
But the way of error leads to death (12:28).  

-3. Synthetic, in which the second stich simply carries on the thought of the first, thus forming one whole sentence:  

If one gives answer before he hears,
it is his folly and shame (18:13).  
The most common meters in Proverbs are 4:3, 4:4, and 3:3, but these are naturally lost in the various translation of the Hebrew text.  
VII. Teaching  
In Proverbs the teaching of the wise men has become respectably linked with the religion of Israel… They were not too closely united as yet, however, since we hear little about the ritual, the priest, the messianic hope, or the prophet throughout the book. It was not until 180 B.C. (date of Ecclesiasticus) that the Law, the supreme expression of religion, and wisdom were equated in Judaism.  
The object of the practical instruction given in these proverbs is not the Jewish nation or a special privileged class, but any individual, commonly called “my son,” who heeds wisdom’s call to listen to her words of advice. This individualistic, democratic approach is characteristic of all of Israel’s wisdom literature.  
The wise men, in dealing with the practical problems of everyday life, do not resort to creed or revelation for their knowledge, but to human experience in all its varied forms…  
Anyone who reads Proverbs is impressed with the high ethical standard of its teachings. The highest type of family life is extolled: monogamy is taken for granted; the respect for mother and wife is emphasized throughout; chastity and marital fidelity are enjoined for all. The glutton, drunkard, and sluggard, the robber and oppressor of the poor, are all roundly condemned. Those who live in accordance with wisdom’s laws are prosperous and happy. A belief in the one true and living God who rewards the righteous and punishes the wicked permeates the book from cover to cover.  
In spite of this high standard of ethics, however, it must be admitted that goodness is almost always motivated by personal interest or success. The high water marks of altruistic behavior, as found in 24:17; 25:21, are sadly marred by the following verse in each case:  
Do not rejoice when our enemy falls,
and let not your heart be glad when he stumbles;
lest the LORD see it, and be displeased,
and turn away his anger from him (24:17-18);
...
In the numerous warnings against illicit dealings with the strange woman, the man is told to abstain because he will be impoverished, or he will be physically weakened, or he will die prematurely. There is no comment on the sinfulness of the act, or on the degradation of the woman who encourages the act. He who is wise will conduct himself in such a way that he will live a long, happy, and prosperous life.  
The eschatology of Proverbs is similar to that of the rest of the Old Testament. Sheol is the dismal abode of the departed… According to 15:11… Sheol and Abaddon are said to be before the Lord; that is, he is in some way concerned with the underworld and its inhabitants. This is a foreshadowing of the more highly developed doctrine of later Judaism and Christianity that God has power over both heaven and hell. Then, too, one cannot help feeling that Sheol, as used in Proverbs, refers not just to death alone but to the death of one who has died in his sins before his time. In other words, Sheol seems to be taking on a moral aspect which it fully assumes when it becomes equivalent to hell at a later time.  
As to the end of man, Proverbs adds nothing to the general Old Testament idea. The good man receives his rewards of happiness, prosperity, and long life here on earth; the wicked man is punished by a premature or violent death; but in neither case does reward or punishment carry over into the next life (cf. 14:12; 15:24).  
VIII. Proverbs and the New Testament  
The quotations from Proverbs in the New Testament are few… They are usually taken from the Greek text of Proverbs rather than from the Hebrew.

But love covereth all transgressions (Prov. 10:12b).
For love covereth a multitude of sins (I Pet. [Peter] 4:8b)  

If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat;
And if he be thirsty, give him water to drink:
For thou will heap coals of fire upon his head,
And Jehovah will reward thee (Prov. 25:21-22).
But if thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst,Give him to drink: for in so doing thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head (Rom. [Romans] 12:20, with LXX [the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible], except that the last line is omitted).   …
… there are many proverbs which are the basis of New Testament passages, but are not actually quoted…  
Christ links himself with the wisdom of the Old Testament when he says: “The queen of the South will arise at the judgment with the men of this generation and condemn them; for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, something greater than Solomon is here” (Luke 11:31; Matt. 12:42). Jesus is not just making a simple comparison, but rather is he saying that the wisdom of the Old Testament, so imperfectly manifested in the character and teachings of Solomon, is now perfectly revealed in the matchless life and words of him who is David’s greater son…  
That Proverbs is part of the Old Testament canon points to the fact that wisdom is the revelation of God’s orderly plan in the universe and in the lives of men, rather than merely the accumulation of intelligent observations on life down through the ages. When Jesus identifies himself with wisdom he also confirms this view and brings wisdom into the redemptive plan and purpose of God.” (Fritsch, 1955, pp. IV, 767-778)  
Adam Clarke The HOLY BIBLE… with a COMMENTARY AND CRITICAL NOTES  
“… Solomon collected the major part of these proverbs from those who had preceded him, whether Hebrews or Heathens… whatever of truth is found in or among men, came originally from God…

… we find there is not an ancient nation on earth that is without its Code of Proverbs, or proverbial maxims. The ancient SANSCRIT is full of them; and they abound in the Persian and Arabic languages, and in all the dialects formed from these, in all the countries of the East. The HEETOPADESA of Vishnoo Sarma, the Anvari Soheily, the Bahar Danush, Kalila we Dumna, and all the other forms of that original work: the fables of Lockman, Æsop, Phœdrus, Avienus, &c, are collections of proverbs, illustrated by their application to the most important purposes of domestic, social, and civil life.  
The term PROVERB, proverbium, compounded of pro, for, and verbum, a word, speech, or saying, leads us to an original meaning of the thing itself. It was an allegorical saying, where more was meant than met the eye – a short saying that stood for a whole discourse, the words of which are metaphorical…  
MILLBROOK, December 2, 1822.” (Adam Clarke, 1831, p. III 471 & 473)   An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2018.12.18 15:33 MarleyEngvall Lecture XX: On the Nature of the Prophetical Teachings (ii)

 by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. It is instructive to see how at different epochs dif- ferent evils attracted their attention; how the same institutions, which at one time seemed good, at another seemed fraught with evil. Contrast Isaiah's denunciation of the hierarchy with Malachi's support of them. Contrast Isaiah's confi- dence against Assyria with Jeremiah's despair before Chaldæa. There is no one Shibboleth handed down through the whole series. Only the simple faith in a few great moral and religious principles remains, the rest is constantly changing. Only the poor are con- stantly protected against the rich; only the weaker side is always regarded with the tender compassion which belongs especially to Him to whom all the Prophets bare witness. To the poor, to the oppressed, to the neglected, the Prophet of old was and is still the faithful friend. To the selfish, the luxurious, the insolent, the idle, the frivolous, the Prophet was and is still an implacable enemy. It is this aspect which has most forcibly brought out the well-known likeness of the Prophets both to ancient orators and modern statesmen. The often- quoted lines of Milton best express both the resem- blance and the difference: — "Their orators thou extoll'st, as those The top of eloquence; statists indeed, And lovers of their country, as may seem; But herein to our Prophets far beneath, As men divinely taught, and better teaching The solid rules of civil government, In their majestic, unaffected style, Than all the oratory of Greece and Rome. In them is plainest taught, and easiest learnt, What makes a nation happy, and keeps it so, What ruins kingdoms, and lays cities flat; These only with our law best form a king." 5. One point yet remains in connection with their teaching — and that is their absolute indepen- dence. Most of them were in opposition to the prevailing opinion of their countrymen for the time being. Some of them were persecuted, some of them were in favor with God and man alike. But in all, there was the same Divine Prophetic spirit — of elevation above the passions, and prejudices, and dis- tractions of common life. "Be not afraid of them; be not afraid of their faces; be not afraid of their words. Speak my words to them, whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear." "I have made thy face strong against their faces, and thy forehead strong against their foreheads: as an ada- mant harder than flint I have made thy forehead; fear them not, neither be dismayed." This is the position of all the Prophets, in a greater or less de- gree — it is the position, in the very highest sense of all, of Him whose chief outward characteristic it was that He stood high above all the influences of His age, and was the Rock against which they dashed in vain, and on which they were ground to powder. This element of the Prophetical Office deserves special consideration, because it pervades their whole teach- ing, and because it is in its lower manifestations within the reach of all. What is it that is thus rec- commended to us? Not eccentricity, not singularity, not useless opposition to the existing framework of the world, or the Church in which we find ourselves. Not this — which is of no use to any one — but this which is needed by every one of us, a fixed resolu- tion to hold our own against chance and accident, against popular clamor and popular favor, against the opinions, the conversation, of the circle in which we live; a silent look of disapproval, a single word of cheering approval — an even course, which turns not to the right hand or to the left, unless with our own full conviction — a calm, cheerful, hopeful endeavor to do the work that has been given us to do, whether we succeed or whether we fail. And for this Prophetic independence, what is, what was, the Prophetic ground and guaranty? There were two. One was that of which I will proceed to speak presently, — that which has almost changed the meaning of the name of the Prophets, — their constant looking forward to the Future. The other was that they felt themselves standing on a rock that was higher and stronger than they, — the support and the presence of God. It was this which made their inde- pendent elevation itself a Prophecy, because it spoke of a Power behind them, unseen, yet manifesting it- self through them in that one quality which even the world cannot fail at last to recognize. Give us a man, young or old, high or low , on whom we know that we can thoroughly depend, — who will stand firm when others fail, — the friend faithful and true, the adviser honest and fearless, the adversary just and chivalrous; in such an one there is a fragment of the Rock of Ages — a sign that there has been a Prophet amongst us. The consciousness of the presence of God. In the Mussulman or the Hindoo this makes itself felt in the entire abstraction of the mind from all outward things. In the fanatic , of whatever religion, it makes itself felt in the disregard of all the common rules of hu- man morality. In the Hebrew Prophet it makes itself felt in the disregard of all the common rules of hu- man morality. In the Hebrew Prophet it makes itself felt in the indifference to human praise or blame, in the unswerving fidelity to the voice of duty and of conscience, in the courage to say what we knew to be true, and do what we know to be right. This in the Hebrew Prophet — this in the Christian man — is the best sign of the near vision of Almighty God; it is the best sign of the Real Presence of Jesus Christ, the Faithful and True, the Holy and the Just, the Power of God, and the Wisdom of God. III. This brings us to the Prophetic teaching of the Future. It is well known that in the popular and modern use of the word since the seven- teenth century, by a "Prophet" is meant almost ex- clusively one who predicts and foretells; and to have asserted the contrary has even been thought heretical. We have already seen that this assumption is itself a grave error. It is wholly unauthorized, either by the Bible or by our own Church. It has drawn off the attention from the fundamental idea of the Pro- phetical office to a subordinate part. It has caused us to seek evidence of Prophecy in those portions of it which are least convincing, rather than in those which are most convincing — in those parts which it has most in common with other systems, rather than in those parts which distinguish it from other systems. But this error, resting as it does on an etymological mistake, could never have obtained so wide a diffusion, without some ground in fact; and this ground is to be found in the vast relation of the Prophetic office to the Future, which I shall now attempt to draw forth — dwell- ing, as before, on the general spirit of the institution. It is, then undoubtedly true that the Prophets of the Old Dispensation did in a marked and especial manner look forward to the Future. It was this which gave to the whole Jewish nation an upward, forward, progressive character, such as no Asi- atic, no ancient, I may almost say, no other nation has ever had in the same degree. Representing as they did the whole people, they share and they personated the general spirit of tenacious trust and hope that dis- tinguishes the people itself. Their warnings, their con- solations, their precepts, when relating to the past and the present, are clothed in imagery drawn from the future. The very form of the Hebrew verb, in which one tense is used both for the past and the future, lends itself to this mode of speech. They were con- ceived as shepherds seated on the top of one of the hills of Judæa, seeing far over the heads of their flocks, and guiding them accordingly; or as watchmen stand- ing on some lofty tower, or a wider horizon within their view than that of ordinary men. "Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?" was the question addressed to Isaiah by an anxious world below. "I will stand upon my watch," is the expression of Habakkuk, "and set me upon the tower, and will watch to see what He will say unto me. Though the vision tarry, wait for it: it will surely come; it will not tarry." Their practical and relig- ious exhortations were it is true conveyed with a force which needed no further attestation. Of all of them, in a certain sense, it might be said as of the Greatest of all, that they spoke "as one having au- thority and not as the scribes." Still there are special signs of authority besides, and of these, one of the chief, from first to last, was their "speaking of things to come." And this token of Divinity extends (and here again I speak quite irrespectively of any special fulfil- ments of special predictions) to the whole Prophetic order, in Old and New Testament alike. There is nothing which to any reflecting mind is more signal a proof of the Bible being really the guiding book of the world's history, than its anticipations, predic- tions, insights, into the wants of men far beyond the age in which it was written. That modern element which we find in it, — so like our own times, so un- like the ancient framework of its natural form; that Gentile, European, turn of thought, — so unlike the Asiatic language and scenery which was its cradle; that enforcement of principles and duties, which for years and centuries lay almost unperceived, because hardly ever understood in its sacred pages; but which we now see to be in accordance with the utmost re- quirements of philosophy and civilization; those prin- ciples of toleration, chivalry, discrimination, proportion, which even now are not appreciated as they ought to be, and which only can be fully realized in ages yet to come; these are the unmistakable predictions of the Prophetic spirit of the Bible, the pledges of its inex- haustible resources. Thus much for the general aspect of the Prophetical office as it looked to the Future. Its more special aspects may be considered under three heads. (1.) First, their contemplation and prediction of the political events of their own and the surround- ing nations. It is this which brings them most nearly into comparison with the seers of other ages and other races. Every one knows instances, both in an- cient and modern times, of predictions which have been uttered and fulfilled in regard to events of this kind. Sometimes such predictions have been the result of political foresight. "To have made predictions which have been often verified by the event, seldom or never falsified by it," has been suggested by one well competent to judge, as an ordinary sign of statesman- ship in modern times. "To see events in their begin- nings, to discern their purport and tendencies from the first, to forewarn his countrymen accordingly," was the foremost duty of an ancient orator, as described by Demosthenes. Many instances will occur to stu- dents of history. Even within our own memory the great catastrophe of the disruption of the United States of America was foretold, even with the exact date, several years beforehand. Sometimes there has been an anticipation of some future epoch in the pregnant sayings of eminent philosophers or poets; as for ex- ample the intimation of the discovery of America by Seneca; or of Shakespeare by Plato, or the Reformation by Dante. Sometimes the same result has been pro- duced by a power of divination, granted, in some in- explicable manner, to ordinary men. Of such a kind were many of the ancient oracles, the fulfilment of which, according to Cicero, could not be denied with- out a perversion of history. Such was the fore- shadowing of the twelve centuries of Roman dominion by the legend of the apparition of the twelve vultures to Romulus, and which was so understood four hun- dred years before its actual accomplishment. Such, but with less certainty, was the traditional prediction of the conquest of Constantinople by the Mussulmans; the alleged predictions by Archbishop Malachi, whether composed in the eleventh or the sixteenth century, of the series of Popes down to the present time; not to speak of the well-known instances which are recorded both in French and English history. But there are several points which at once place the Prophetic predic- tions on a different level from any of these. It is not that they are more exact in particulars of time and place; none can be more so than that of the twelve centuries of the Roman Empire; and our Lord Him- self has excluded the precise knowledge of times and seasons from the widest and highest range of the prophetic vision. The difference rather lies in their close connection with the moral and spiritual charac- ter of the Prophetic mission, and their freedom (for the most part) from any of those fantastic and arbi- trary accompaniments by which so many secular pre- dictions are distinguished. They are almost always founded on the denunciations of moral evil, or the ex- altation of moral good, not on the mere localities or cities concerned. The nations whose doom is pro- nounced thus become representatives of moral princi- ples and examples to all ages alike. Israel, Jerusalem, Egypt, Babylon, Tyre, are personifications of states or principles still existing, and thus the predictions con- cerning them have, as Lord Bacon says, constantly germinant fulfilments. The secular events which are thus predicted are (with a few possible exceptions) within the horizon of the Prophet's age, and are thus capable of being turned to the practical edification of the Prophet's own age and country. As in the vision of Pisgah, the background is suggested by the fore- ground. No object is introduced which a contemporary could fail to appreciate and understand in outline, al- though its remoter and fuller meaning might be re- served for a far distant future. These predictions are also, in several striking instances, made dependents on the moral condition of those to whom they are ad- dressed, and are thus divested of the appearance of blind caprice or arbitrary fate, in which the literal predictions of both ancient and modern divination so much delight. "Yet forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown," No denunciation is more absolute in its terms than this; and of none is the frustration more complete. The true Prophetic lesson of the Book of Jonah is, that there was a principle in the moral gov- ernment of God, more sacred and more peremptory even than the accomplishment of the most cherished predic- tion. "God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that He had said that He would do unto them; and He did it not." What here appears in a single case is laid down as a universal rule by the Prophet Jeremiah. "At what instant I shall speak concerning a nation . . . to destroy it; if that nation . . . turn from their evil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to do unto them. And at what instant I shall speak con- cerning a nation . . . to build and to plant it; if it do evil in my sight, that it obey not my voice, then I will repent of the good wherewith I said I would benefit them." With these limitations, it is acknowledged by all students of the subject, that the Hebrew prophets made predictions concerning the fortunes of their own and other countries which were unquestionably fulfilled. There can be no reasonable doubt, for ex- ample, that Amos foretold the captivity and return of Israel; and Michael the fall of Samaria; and Eze- kiel the fall of Jerusalem; and Isaiah the fall of Tyre; and Jeremiah the limits of the Captivity. But, even if no such special cases could be proved, the grandeur of the position which the Prophets occu- py in this respect is one which it needs no attes- tation of any particular prediction to enhance, and which no failure of any particular prediction can im- pair. From those lofty watch-towers of Divine spec- ulation, from that moral and spiritual height which raised them far above the rest of the ancient world, they saw the rise and fall of other nations, long be- fore it was visible to those nations themselves. "They were the first in all antiquity," it has been well said, "to perceive that the old East was dead; they celebrated its obsequies, in advance of the dissolu- tion which they saw to be inevitable." They were, as Dean Milman has finely expressed it, the "great Tragic Chorus of the awful drama that was unfold- ing itself in the Eastern world. As each independent tribe or monarchy was swallowed up in the uni- versal empire of Assyria, the seers of Judah watched the progress of the invader, and uttered their sub- lime funeral anthems over the greatness and pros- perity of Moab and Ammon, Damascus and Tyre." And in those funeral laments and wide-reaching pre- dictions we trace a foretaste of what that universal sym- pathy with nations outside the chosen circle, — of that belief in an all-embracing Providence, — which has now become part of the belief of the highest in- telligence of the world. There may be many inno- cent questions about the date, or about the interpre- tation of the Book of Daniel, and of the Apocalypse. But there can be no doubt that they contain the first germs of the great idea of the succession of ages, of the continuous growth of empires and races under a law of Divine Providence, the first sketch of the Education of the world, and the first outline of the Philosophy of history. (2.) I pass to the second grand example of the predictive spirit of the Prophets. It was the distinguishing mark of the Jewish people that their golden age was not in the past, but in the future; that their greatest Hero (as they deemed Him to be) was not their founder, but their founder's latest descendant. Their traditions, their fancies, their glories, gathered round the head not of a chief, or warrior, or sage that had been, but of a King, a De- liverer, a Prophet who was to come. Of this singu- lar expectation the Prophets were, if not the chief authors, at least the chief exponents. Sometimes He is named, sometimes He is unnamed; sometimes He is almost identified with some actual Prince of the coming or the present generation, sometimes He recedes into the distant ages. But again and again, at least in the later Prophetic writings, the vista is closed by His person, His character, His reign. And almost everywhere the Prophetic spirit, in the deline- ation of His coming, remains true to itself. He is to be a King, a Conqueror, yet not by the common weapons of earthly warfare, but by those only weapons which the Prophetic order recognized, — by justice, mercy, truth, and goodness, — by suffering, by endur- ance, by identification of Himself with the joys, the sufferings of His nation, by opening a wider sym- pathy to the whole human race than had ever been opened before. That this expectation, however ex- plained, existetd in a greater or less degree amongst the Prophets, is not doubted by any theologians of any school whatever. It is no matter of controversy It is a simple and universally recognized fact, that, filled with these Prophetic images, the whole Jewish nation — nay, at last the whole eastern world — did look forward with longing expectation to the coming of this future Conqueror. Was this unparalleled ex- pectation realized? And here again I speak only of facts which are acknowledged by Germans and Frenchmen, no less than by Englishmen, by critics and by sceptics, even more fully than by theologians and ecclesiastics. There did arise out of this nation a Character by universal consent as unparalleled as the expectation which had preceded Him. Jesus of Nazareth was, on the most superficial no less than on the deepest view we take of His coming, the greatest name, the most extraordinary power, but precisely in those qualities in which from first to last the Prophetic order had laid the utmost stress, — justice and love, goodness and truth. I push this argument no further. Its force is weakened the moment we introduce into it any con- troversial detail. The fact which arrests our atten- tion is, that side by side with this great expecta- tion, appears the great climax to which the whole History leads up. It is a proof, if anything can be a proof, of a unity of design, in the education of the Jews, in the history of the world. It is proof that the events of the Christian Dispensation were planted on the very centre of human hopes and fears. It is a proof that the noblest hopes and aspirations that were ever breathed were not disappointed; and that when "God spake by the Prophets" of the coming Christ, He spake of that which in His own good time He was certain to bring to pass. (3.) There is one further class of predictions in which the Prophetic writings abound, and which still more directly connects itself with their general spirit, and of which the predictions I have already noticed are only a part, — the Future, as a ground of consolation to the Church, to individuals, to the human race. It is this which gives to the Bible at large that hopeful, victorious, triumphant character, which distinguishes it from the morose, querulous, narrow, desponding spirit of so much false religion, ancient and modern. The Power of the Future. — This is the fulcrum by which they kept up the hopes of their country, and on its support we can rest as well as they. The Future of the Church. — I need not repeat those glorious predictions which are familiar to all. But their spirit is applicable now as well as then. Although, in this sense, we prophesy and predict, as it were at second-hand from them, yet they are justified and confirmed by the experience, which the Prophets had not, of two thousand years ago. We may be depressed by this or that failure of good projects, of lofty aspirations. But the Prophets and the Bible bid us look onward. The world, they tell us, as a whole tends forwards and not backwards. The losses and backsliding of this generation, if so be, will be repaired in advance of the next. "To one far-off Divine event," slowly it may be and un- certainly, but steadily onwards, "the whole cre- ation moves." Work on in faith, in hope, in confi- dence; the future of the Church, the future of each particular society in which our lot is cast, is a solid basis of cheerful perseverance. The very ignorance of the true spirit of the Bible of which we complain, is the best pledge of its boundless resources for the future. The doctrines, the precepts, the institutions, which as yet lie undeveloped, far exceed in richness, in power, those that have been used out, or been fully applied. The Future of the Individual. — Have we ever thought of the immense stress laid by the Prophets on this mighty thought? What is the sentence with which the Church of Eng- land opens its morning and evening service, but a Prophecy, a Prediction, of the utmost importance to every human soul? "When the wicked man shall turn away from his wickedness, and doeth that which is lawful and right, he shall save his soul alive." So spoke Ezekiel, advancing beyond the limits of the Mosaic law. So spoke no less Isaiah and Micah: "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow." "He will turn again; He will have compas- sion upon us. He will subdue our iniquities. Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea." So spoke, in still more endearing accents, the Prophet of Prophets, Jesus Christ Himself, when He uttered His world-wide invitation, "Him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out." "Her sins which are many are forgiven." "Go and sin no more." The Future is everything to us, the Past is nothing. The turn, the change, the fixing our faces in the right, instead of the wrong direction, — this is the difficulty, this is the turning-point, this is the crisis of life. But that once done, the Future is clear before us. The despondency of the human heart, the timidity or the austerity of Churches or of sects, may refuse this great Prophetic absolution; may cling to pen ances and regrets for the past; may shrink from the glad tidings that the good deeds of the Future can blot out the sorrows and sins of the Past. But the whole Prophetic teaching of the Old and New Testament has staked itself on the issue; it hazards the bold prediction that all will be well when once we have turned; it bids us go courageously forward, in the strength of the Spirit of God, in the power of the life of Christ. There is yet one more Future, — a future which to the Prophets of old was almost shut out, but which it is the glory of the Prophets of the New Dispensation to have predicted to us with unshaken certainty, — the Future life. In this respect, the predictions of the latest of the Prophets far transcend those which went before. The heathen philosophers were content with guesses on the immortal future of the soul. The elder Hebrew Prophets were content, for the most part, with the consciousness of the Divine support in this life and through the terrors of death, but did not venture to look further. But the Christian Prophets, gathering up the last hopes of the Jewish Church into the first hopes of the Christian Church, throw themselves boldly on the undiscovered world beyond the grave, and fore- tell that there the wishes and fears of this world would find their true accomplishment. To this Pre- diction so confident, yet so strange at the time, the intelligence no less than the devotion of mankind has in the course of ages come round. Powerful minds which have rejected much beside in the teaching of the Bible, have claimed as their own this last expec- tation of the simple Prophetic school, which founded its hopes on the events of that first Easter day, that first day of the week, "when life and immortality were brought to light." And it is a prediction which shares the character of all the other truly Prophetic utterances, in that it directly bears on the present state of being. Even without dwelling on the special doctrine of judgment and retribution, the mere fact of the stress laid by the Prophets on the certainty of the Future is full of instruction, hardly perhaps enough borne in mind. Look forwards, we sometimes say, a few days or a few months, and how different will all things seem. Yes; but look forwards a few more years; and how yet more differently will all things seem. From the height of that Future, to which on the wings of the ancient Prophetic belief we can transport ourselves, look back on the present. Think of our troubles, as they will seem when we know their end. Think of those good thoughts and deeds which alone will survive in that unknown world. Think of our controversies, as they will appear, when we shall be forced to sit down at the feast with those whom we have known only as opponents here, but whom we must recognize as companions there. To that Future of Futures which shall fulfil the yearnings of all that the Prophets have desired on earth, it is for us, wherever we are, to look onwards, upwards, and forwards, in the constant expectation of something better than we see or know. Uncer- tain as to "the day and hour," and as to the manner of fulfilment, this last of all the Predictions still, like those of old, builds itself upon the past and present. "It doth not yet appear what we shall be; but we know that when He shall appear, we shall be like Him; for we shall see Him as He is." 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. I : Abraham to Samuel, Lecture XX : On the Nature of the Prophetical Teaching. by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1879, pp. 508 - 524
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